The exposed ants showed deficiencies in the ability of the association between food sites and encountered cues in comparison to never exposed ants: Exposed ants failed to acquire the ability of associating olfactory or visual stimuli and food. After exposure and a 30 h recovery period, the ants were able to make this association, but never reached the score of unexposed ants. When these ants were exposed and trained at the same time, they lost the learned association between food and olfactory or visual clues, even more rapidly than never exposed ants. The effect of exposure to GSM 9000 MHz was greater on the visualmemory than the olfactory one. Additionally, the authors observed that the physiological constitution of exposedcolonies showed deficiencies in the movement of the workers, the feeding frequency and the development of the brood in comparison to those never exposed.