Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Incidence of micronuclei in human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to modulated and unmodulated 2450 MHz radiofrequency fields. med./bio.

Published in: Bioelectromagnetics 2013; 34 (7): 542-548

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the extent of genetic damage in human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to modulated wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) and continuous wave (CW) radiofrequency exposures and whether the damage, if any, can be prevented by treatment of the cells with melatonin.

Background/further details

Blood of four healthy volunteers was collected. Gamma radiation (1.5 Gy) was used as positive control.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 2,450 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 2 h
  • power: 2.57 W
  • SAR: 10.9 W/kg (across the four flasks (average values in each flask: 11.7, 12.7, 10.4 and 8.8 W/kg))
Exposure 2: 2,450 MHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous for 2 h
  • power: 2.57 W
  • SAR: 10.9 W/kg (across the four flasks (average values in each flask: 11.7, 12.7, 10.4 and 8.8 W/kg))

General information

Aliquots of blood samples were treated under the following conditions: 1. untreated control, left in an incubator 2. melatonin alone (2 mM), left in an incubator 3. radiofrequency alone 4. melatonin + radiofrequency exposure 5. sham exposure 6. melatonin + sham exposure

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 2,450 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 2 h
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Additional info

W-CDMA modulated

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup open-ended waveguide (108 mm wide, 54 mm high, 605 mm long) operating in the TE10 mode and producing vertically polarized plane wave conditions; entire exposure apparatus was kept in a warm room maintained at a temperature of 35°C; four flasks (36 mm x 66 mm) containing blood samples were arranged horizontally, with the longest dimension perpendicular to the longest dimension of the waveguide, and the height of the medium in the flasks aligned vertically with the electric field; flask closest to the antenna was placed at a distance of around 270 mm from the antenna; each subsequent flask was placed 10 mm from the neighboring flask
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 2.57 W - - - -
SAR 10.9 W/kg - - - across the four flasks (average values in each flask: 11.7, 12.7, 10.4 and 8.8 W/kg)

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 2,450 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 2 h
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 2.57 W - - - -
SAR 10.9 W/kg - - - across the four flasks (average values in each flask: 11.7, 12.7, 10.4 and 8.8 W/kg)

Reference articles

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The results indicated that the incidence of micronuclei was similar in incubator controls and in samples exposed to radiofrequency/sham exposure and melatonin alone. There were no significant differences between W-CDMA and CW radiofrequency exposures. Melatonin treatment had no effect on cells exposed to radiofrequency and sham exposure, while such treatment significantly reduced the frequency of micronuclei in gamma radiation-exposed cells.

Study character:

Study funded by

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