Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Cell death induced by GSM 900-MHz and DCS 1800-MHz mobile telephony radiation. med./bio.

Published in: Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen 2007; 626 (1-2): 69-78

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study whether GSM or DCS exposure can induce cell death during the early and mid stages of Drosophila melanogaster fly oogenesis, where programmed cell death does not physiologically occur.

Background/further details

Ovarioles were investigated. Each Drosophila melanogaster ovary consists of 16-20 ovarioles and each ovariole is an individual egg assembly line, with new egg chambers in the anterior moving toward the posterior as they develop, through 14 successive stages until the mature egg reaches the oviduct. The most anterior region is called the germarium. Each egg chamber consists of a cluster of 16 germ cells surrounded by somatic follicle cells. Among the 16 germ cells, one differentiates as the oocyte and the rest become nurse cells.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: repeated daily exposure, 6 min/day, for 6 days
Exposure 2: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: repeated daily exposure, 6 min/day, for 6 days
Exposure 3: 1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: repeated daily exposure, 6 min/day, for 6 days

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Type
Exposure duration repeated daily exposure, 6 min/day, for 6 days
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 0 cm
Setup The mobile phone antenna was in direct contact with the glass vial containing the flies, and parallel to the vial axis.
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info The experimenter spoke on the mobile phone's microphone during the exposures. The fields were thus "modulated" by the human voice ("speaking emissions" or "GSM basic"), as described previously [Panagopoulos et al., 2004].
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 0.402 mW/cm² mean measured - ± 0.054 mW/cm²
electric field strength 23.7 V/m mean measured - ± 1.8 V/m
magnetic flux density 53 nT mean measured - ± 6 nT

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Type
Exposure duration repeated daily exposure, 6 min/day, for 6 days
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 1 cm
Setup The mobile phone antenna was at 1 cm from the glass vial containing the flies, and parallel to the vial axis.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 0.292 mW/cm² mean measured - ± 0.042 mW/cm²
electric field strength 15.7 V/m mean measured - ± 1.2 V/m
magnetic flux density 35 nT mean measured - ± 5 nT

Exposure 3

Main characteristics
Frequency 1,800 MHz
Type
Exposure duration repeated daily exposure, 6 min/day, for 6 days
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 0 cm
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 0.288 mW/cm² mean measured - ± 0.038 mW/cm²
electric field strength 15.5 V/m mean measured - ± 1.3 V/m
magnetic flux density 36 nT mean measured - ± 5 nT

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Cell death was detected during all the developmental stages of early and mid oogenesis, from germarium to stage 10 and in all types of egg chamber cells (nurse cells, follicle cells, oocyte). Germarium and stages 7-8 were revealed to be the most sensitive developmental stages in response to electromagnetic stress induced by the GSM and DCS fields and, moreover, germarium was found to be even more sensitive than stages 7-8.

Study character:

Study funded by

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