Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Comparison of biological effects between continuous and intermittent exposure to GSM-900-MHz mobile phone radiation: Detection of apoptotic cell-death features. med./bio.

Published in: Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen 2010; 700 (1-2): 51-61

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To compare the influence of different patterns of intermittent exposures with different intervals, with the effects of continuous exposure of the same total duration of GSM exposure on the reproductive capacity of the fly Drosophila melanogaster.

Background/further details

The aim of the study was to examine whether the various intervals of intermittent exposures would indicate the possible existence of DNA repair mechanisms. A further aim of the study was to evaluate whether GSM irradiation has any effect on the disorganization of the actin-cytoskeleton network, which is another characteristic aspect of cell death in the egg chambers.
Each group consisted of nine female and nine male newly emerged flies kept in separate vials for the first 48 h. After the 48 h, when both males and females of each group were sexually mature, they were put together (nine pairs) in another glass vial and they were allowed to mate and lay eggs for the next 72 h. The flies were exposed by the different patterns of 6 min total daily exposure during the first 5 days of each experiment. On the sixth day there was an additional last exposure and 2-3 h later the parent fIies were removed from the vials. The flies were divided into five exposure groups (one continuous exposure group and four intermittent exposure groups) and one sham exposure group.
For cell death investigation ovarioles were investigated (background information about ovarioles, see Panagopoulos 2007b).

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 6 min./day on 6 days
Exposure 2: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: 1 min. on - 10 min. off, repeated 6 times/day on 6 days
Exposure 3: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: 2 min. on - 10 min. off, repeated 3 times/day on 6 days
Exposure 4: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: 3 min. on - 10 min. off, repeated 2 times/day on 6 days
Exposure 5: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: 3 min. on - 6 hrs off, repeated 2 times/day on 6 days
Exposure 6:
  • unspecified
Exposure duration: 6 min./day on 6 days

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 6 min./day on 6 days
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup mobile phone's antenna in contact with the glass vial containing the insects; phone in speaking mode
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 18.6 V/m average over time measured - +/- 2.7 V/m
magnetic flux density 0.075 µT average over time measured - +/- 0.017 µT
power density 0.35 mW/cm² average over time measured - +/-0.07 mW/cm²

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Type
Exposure duration 1 min. on - 10 min. off, repeated 6 times/day on 6 days
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 18.6 V/m average over time measured - +/- 2.7 V/m
magnetic flux density 0.075 µT average over time measured - +/- 0.017 µT
power density 0.35 mW/cm² average over time measured - +/-0.07 mW/cm²

Exposure 3

Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Type
Exposure duration 2 min. on - 10 min. off, repeated 3 times/day on 6 days
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 18.6 V/m average over time measured - +/- 2.7 V/m
magnetic flux density 0.075 µT average over time measured - +/- 0.017 µT
power density 0.35 mW/cm² average over time measured - +/-0.07 mW/cm²

Exposure 4

Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Type
Exposure duration 3 min. on - 10 min. off, repeated 2 times/day on 6 days
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 18.6 V/m average over time measured - +/- 2.7 V/m
magnetic flux density 0.075 µT average over time measured - +/- 0.017 µT
power density 0.35 mW/cm² average over time measured - +/-0.07 mW/cm²

Exposure 5

Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Type
Exposure duration 3 min. on - 6 hrs off, repeated 2 times/day on 6 days
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 18.6 V/m average over time measured - +/- 2.7 V/m
magnetic flux density 0.075 µT average over time measured - +/- 0.017 µT
power density 0.35 mW/cm² average over time measured - +/-0.07 mW/cm²

Exposure 6

Main characteristics
Frequency
  • unspecified
Exposure duration 6 min./day on 6 days
Additional info sham exposure
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 0 V/m - - - -
magnetic flux density 0 µT - - - -
power density 0 mW/cm² - - - -

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The data showed that intermittent exposure decreased the reproductive capacity and altered the actin-cytoskeleton network of the egg chambers, and that the effect is also due to DNA fragmentation. Intermittent exposures with 10 minutes intervals between exposure sessions were almost equally effective as continuous exposure of the same total duration, whereas longer intervals between the exposures seemed to allow the flies to recover and partly overcome the above-mentioned effects of the GSM exposure.

Study character:

Study funded by

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