To study whether the decreased reproduction in insects (Drosophila melanogaster), recorded in authors' previous studies (see "Related articles") after GSMexposure, is accompanied by decreased ovarian development during the developmental period of the first eggs in the ovaries of virgin flies (oogenesis). Oogenesis starts at the late stages of pupation and lasts until about 48 h after eclosion. Furthermore, the authors aimed to verify whether the potential effects were caused by elimination of eggs during early and mid-oogenesis due to DNA damage and cell deathinduction.
Newly emerged flies were divided into seven groups according to the number of hours following eclosion when they were investigated/dissected (0, 10, 20, 32, 39, 45, 51 h). Additionally, all groups (except 0 h group) were divided into two subgroups: a sham exposed and an exposed subgroup (each group n=8). For cell death investigation ovarioles were investigated (background information on ovarioles, see Panagopoulos 2007b).
antenna of the cell phone in contact with the cylindrical glass vials containing the flies
the mobile phone was held close to the experimenter's head with its antenna facing downward, being at the same time parallel to and in contact with the glass vials; the experimenter spoke to the mobile phone's microphone during connection ("modulatedemission")
A sham exposure was conducted.
no temperature increases during the GSMexposures were recorded within the vials with the insects or within the mass of the food