Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Oxidative stress and apoptosis in relation to exposure to magnetic field med./bio.

Published in: Cell Biochem Biophys 2011; 59 (2): 71-77

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study whether electromagnetic fields with pulse trains cause oxidative stress in the rat liver tissue.

Background/further details

30 rats were divided into an exposure group, a sham exposure group and a control group (each n=10).



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 1–40 Hz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: 1 h/day for 30 days

General information

Rats were randomly divided into three groups of ten animals each: i) control group ii) EMF exposed group iii) sham exposed group

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 1–40 Hz
Exposure duration 1 h/day for 30 days
Additional info pulse trains of 1, 10, 20, and 40 Hz
Modulation type pulsed
Rise time 0.5 ms
Fall time 9.5 ms
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup pair of coils (60 cm diameter, 30 cm distance); coils placed inside a Faraday cage (90 cm x 90 cm x 50 cm); animals put into plexyglass cage (30 cm x 30 cm x 20 cm) in the center of the coils
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info each frequency train of 1 Hz, 10, Hz, 20 Hz and 40 Hz was given for 4-min and with 1-min intervals between each frequency (together 20 min.); on each day, three exposue cycles performed (1 h)
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 0.6 V/m peak value measured - -
magnetic flux density 1.5 mT - measured - -

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The data showed an increase in the levels of oxidative stress indicators: the levels of the plasma enzymes and plasma albumin, bilirubin, and total protein were significantly increased in the exposed group compared with the sham exposed group and the control group. Additionally, lipid peroxidation and the superoxide dismutase level were also increased in the liver tissue of exposed animals compared with the sham exposed and the control group.
There was no statistical significant difference in viable and apoptotic cell percentages among the different groups. However, there was a significantly lower necrotic cell percentage in exposed animals compared with unexposed or sham exposed rats.

Study character:

Study funded by

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