Two experiments were performed: One experiment to study the effects on associative learning (with three post exposure times: 12 h, 1 day and 2 day) and another experiment to investigate the biochemical parameters (with six post exposure times: 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 h).
The animals of each experiment were randomly divided into four groups: 1) control group, 2) tocopherol monoglucoside treatment (injected intraperitoneally, 0.6 g/kg), 3) pulse exposure group and 4) tocopherol monoglucoside plus pulse exposure group (eight mice per post exposure time point for each group). All the experiments were repeated three times (total of 24 mice for each post exposure time point in each group).
Animals were divided into the following four groups: i) control group ii) treatment with 0.6 g/kg (bodyweight) tocopherol monoglucoside (TMG) iii) exposure to EMF iv) treatment with TMG + exposure to EMF
|Exposure duration||ca. 6.5 min|
12 h and one day post exposure associative learning was significantly reduced compared with the sham exposure group, but recovered at two days post exposure.
Compared with the sham exposure group, lipid peroxidation of brain tissue and chemiluminescence intensity increased significantly, while the enzyme activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase decreased significantly at 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 1 day post exposure. All these parameters recovered at two day post exposure.
No significant differences between the sham exposure group and the pulse exposed group were found in serum cholesterol and triglycerides.
Pretreatment of mice with tocopherol monoglucoside showed protective effects to pulse exposure.
In conclusion, low frequency pulse exposure significantly decreased associative learning in mice and tocopherol monoglucoside acted as a protective agent from pulse exposure. This mechanism could involve an increase of oxidative stress in the brain by pulse exposure.