Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Effect of Electromagnetic Pulses (EMP) on associative learning in mice and a preliminary study of mechanism med./bio.

Published in: Int J Radiat Biol 2011; 87 (12): 1147-1154

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To investigate the effects of electromagnetic pulses on associative learning in mice (and the protective effect of tocopherol monoglucoside).

Background/further details

Two experiments were performed: One experiment to study the effects on associative learning (with three post exposure times: 12 h, 1 day and 2 day) and another experiment to investigate the biochemical parameters (with six post exposure times: 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 h).
The animals of each experiment were randomly divided into four groups: 1) control group, 2) tocopherol monoglucoside treatment (injected intraperitoneally, 0.6 g/kg), 3) pulse exposure group and 4) tocopherol monoglucoside plus pulse exposure group (eight mice per post exposure time point for each group). All the experiments were repeated three times (total of 24 mice for each post exposure time point in each group).



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 500 mHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: ca. 6.5 min

General information

Animals were divided into the following four groups: i) control group ii) treatment with 0.6 g/kg (bodyweight) tocopherol monoglucoside (TMG) iii) exposure to EMF iv) treatment with TMG + exposure to EMF

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 500 mHz
Exposure duration ca. 6.5 min
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 350 ns
Rise time 10 ns
Additional info

200 pulses

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup 500 cm long conical GTEM cell; 16 animals placed in individual exposure holders inside the GTEM cell at one time so, that the major axis of the animal was parallel to the magnetic vector
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 400 kV/m peak value - - -
SAR 70 mW/kg average over mass - whole body -

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

12 h and one day post exposure associative learning was significantly reduced compared with the sham exposure group, but recovered at two days post exposure.
Compared with the sham exposure group, lipid peroxidation of brain tissue and chemiluminescence intensity increased significantly, while the enzyme activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase decreased significantly at 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 1 day post exposure. All these parameters recovered at two day post exposure.
No significant differences between the sham exposure group and the pulse exposed group were found in serum cholesterol and triglycerides.
Pretreatment of mice with tocopherol monoglucoside showed protective effects to pulse exposure.
In conclusion, low frequency pulse exposure significantly decreased associative learning in mice and tocopherol monoglucoside acted as a protective agent from pulse exposure. This mechanism could involve an increase of oxidative stress in the brain by pulse exposure.

Study character:

Study funded by

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