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Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Drosophila oogenesis as a bio-marker responding to EMF sources.

Published in: Electromagn Biol Med 2014; 33 (3): 165-189

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To investigate the effects of electromagnetic fields emitted from different sources on the reproduction of the fruit fly Drosophila spec..
Background/further details: In total, 280 experiments were conducted in which the exposure source, the distance between the source and fruit fly, and the duration were varied. Partially, different exposure sources were used simultaneously or consecutively (see "Field characteristics").
The experiment started with newly emerged flies in glass vials, males and females seperately, respectively. After three days, male and female flies were transferred into a common vial for mating. Exposure was performed with the start of the experiment (otherwise stated).
To assess the number of viable F1 pupae, parent flies were removed at the sixth day of exposure (or later if exposure lasted more than six days). The vials with the developing embryos were kept in a culture room to count the number of F1 pupae developed in every vial until day 22 of the experiment.
For detection of apoptosis in follicles, adult female flies were removed out of the vial five hours after the last exposure and anesthetized for removing the ovaries.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: 6 or 12 minutes daily for 1 (3rd day of experiment only), or 3 days (D. virilis) (follicles); 6 minutes daily for 7 days (D. virilis) (F1 pupae)
Exposure 2: 1,880–1,900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: 30 min daily for 5 days (D. melanogaster) or 9 days (D. virilis) (F1 pupae); 30 min daily for 5 days (D. melanogaster) or 45 min daily for 4 days (D. virilis) (follicles)
Exposure 3: 1,880–1,900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: 30 min daily for 5 days (D. melanogaster) or 30 min daily for 9 days (D. virilis) (F1 pupae); 45 min daily for 4 days (D. virilis) (follicles)
DECT handset
Exposure 4: 2,400–2,483 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: 30 min daily for 6 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae); 30 min daily for 6 days (D. melanogaster) (follicles)
bluetooth coupled with a GSM mobile phone during a call
Exposure 5: 2,400–2,480 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: 60 min daily for 7 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae); 60 min daily for 7 days (D. melanogaster) or 20 min daily for 4 days (D. virilis) (follicles)
Exposure 6: 92.8 MHz
Modulation type: FM
Exposure duration: 30 min daily for 4 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae); 30 min daily for 4 days (D. melanogaster) (follicles)
Exposure 7: 2,400–2,480 MHz
Exposure duration: 10 min daily for 6 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae); 10 min daily for 4 days (D. melanogaster) (follicles)
Exposure 8: 900 MHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: 20 min daily for 5 days (D. virilis) (F1 pupae)
CW
Exposure 9: 27.15 MHz
Exposure duration: 3 x 10 min with brakes of 10 min in between daily for 5 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae)
baby monitor
Exposure 10: 1,800–1,900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: 30 minutes daily DECT base station + 30 minutes daily mobile phone for 6 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae); 30 minutes daily DECT base station + 30 minutes daily mobile phone for 4 days (D. melanogaster) (follicles)
DECT base station and GSM mobile phone (consecutively)
Exposure 11: 1,880–1,900 MHz
Exposure duration: 30 min daily for 9 days (D. virilis) (F1 pupae)
DECT base station and DECT handset (simultaneously)
Exposure 12: 1,800–1,900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: 30 min daily DECT handset + 30 min daily mobile phone for 6 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae); 30 min daily DECT handset + 30 min daily mobile phone for 4 days (D. melanogaster) (follicles)
DECT handset and GSM mobile phone (consecutively)
Exposure 13: 900–2,480 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: 30 min daily for 9 days (D. virilis) (F1 pupae); 30 min daily for 7 days (D. virilis) (follicles)
bluetooth and GSM mobile phone (simultaneously)
Exposure 14: 900 MHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: 6 min daily for 4 days (D. virilis) (follicles)
CW and GSM mobile phone (simultaneously)
General information
exposure took place in cylindrical glass vials of 2.5 cm diameter and 10 cm height
control flies were sham exposed in a Faraday cage and placed away from any emitting source.for; radiofrequency EF intensity was monitored inside this cage and found to be well below the normal background values; B-field extremely low frequency intensity was below 0.1 µT
Exposure 1
Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Type
Exposure duration 6 or 12 minutes daily for 1 (3rd day of experiment only), or 3 days (D. virilis) (follicles); 6 minutes daily for 7 days (D. virilis) (F1 pupae)
Additional info GSM mobile phone
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup fruit flies were exposed in a distance of 0, 10 or 20 cm; voice simulation was performed via radio playing
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 22 V/m mean measured - in a distance of 0 cm
electric field strength 2 V/m mean measured - in a distance of 10 cm
electric field strength 0.4 V/m mean measured - in a distance of 20 cm
SAR 1.2 W/kg - - - according to manufacturer
Exposure 2
Main characteristics
Frequency 1,880–1,900 MHz
Type
Exposure duration 30 min daily for 5 days (D. melanogaster) or 9 days (D. virilis) (F1 pupae); 30 min daily for 5 days (D. melanogaster) or 45 min daily for 4 days (D. virilis) (follicles)
Additional info DECT base station
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 0.08 ms
Repetition frequency 100 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup voice simulation was performed via radio playing
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 2.7 V/m mean measured - -
Exposure 3
Main characteristics
Frequency 1,880–1,900 MHz
Type
Exposure duration 30 min daily for 5 days (D. melanogaster) or 30 min daily for 9 days (D. virilis) (F1 pupae); 45 min daily for 4 days (D. virilis) (follicles)
Additional info DECT handset
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 0.38 ms
Repetition frequency 100 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup voice simulation was performed via radio playing
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 2 V/m mean measured - -
electric field strength 8 V/m maximum measured - -
Exposure 4
Main characteristics
Frequency 2,400–2,483 MHz
Type
Exposure duration 30 min daily for 6 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae); 30 min daily for 6 days (D. melanogaster) (follicles)
Additional info bluetooth coupled with a GSM mobile phone during a call
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 400 ms
Repetition frequency 133.3 Hz
Additional info bluetooth: pulse width 0.4 s; pulse repetition rate 133.3 Hz GSM mobile phone: pulse repetition rate 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup vials were put roundly close to the bluetooth device, which was coupled with a mobile phone during a call (no voice simulation necessary)
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 0.3 V/m mean measured - bluetooth device
SAR 1.2 W/kg - - - mobile phone, according to manufacturer
Exposure 5
Main characteristics
Frequency 2,400–2,480 MHz
Type
Exposure duration 60 min daily for 7 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae); 60 min daily for 7 days (D. melanogaster) or 20 min daily for 4 days (D. virilis) (follicles)
Additional info Wi-Fi
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 1 ms
Repetition frequency 10 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup vials were placed on top of the wireless router
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 2.1 V/m mean measured - -
Exposure 6
Main characteristics
Frequency 92.8 MHz
Type
Exposure duration 30 min daily for 4 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae); 30 min daily for 4 days (D. melanogaster) (follicles)
Additional info FM signal
Modulation
Modulation type FM
Modulation frequency 20 kHz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 13 V/m mean measured - -
Exposure 7
Main characteristics
Frequency 2,400–2,480 MHz
Type
Exposure duration 10 min daily for 6 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae); 10 min daily for 4 days (D. melanogaster) (follicles)
Additional info microwave oven
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 15 cm
Setup glass vials with flies were 15 cm away from the oven; microwave oven under normal operating conditions (no food inside); voice simulation was performed via radio playing; for some experiments, the microwave oven was put in a Faraday cage which resulted in a reduced electrical field
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 10 V/m mean measured - during normal operation
magnetic flux density 10 µT - - - 50 Hz magnetic field from power supply
electric field strength 3 V/m mean measured - microwave oven within a Faraday cage
Exposure 8
Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Type
Charakteristic
Exposure duration 20 min daily for 5 days (D. virilis) (F1 pupae)
Additional info CW
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
  • RF generator
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 20 V/m mean measured - -
Exposure 9
Main characteristics
Frequency 27.15 MHz
Type
Exposure duration 3 x 10 min with brakes of 10 min in between daily for 5 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae)
Additional info baby monitor
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup antenna placed between the vials; voice simulation was performed via radio playing
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 20 V/m mean measured - -
Exposure 10
Main characteristics
Frequency 1,800–1,900 MHz
Type
Exposure duration 30 minutes daily DECT base station + 30 minutes daily mobile phone for 6 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae); 30 minutes daily DECT base station + 30 minutes daily mobile phone for 4 days (D. melanogaster) (follicles)
Additional info DECT base station and GSM mobile phone (consecutively)
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 0.08 ms
Repetition frequency 100 Hz
Additional info DECT base station: pulse width 0.08 ms; pulse repetition rate 100 Hz GSM mobile phone: pulse repetition rate 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup voice simulation was performed via radio playing
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 22 V/m mean measured - mobile phone
electric field strength 2.7 V/m mean measured - DECT base station
SAR 1.2 W/kg - - - mobile phone, according to manufacturer
Exposure 11
Main characteristics
Frequency 1,880–1,900 MHz
Type
Exposure duration 30 min daily for 9 days (D. virilis) (F1 pupae)
Additional info DECT base station and DECT handset (simultaneously)
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup voice simulation was performed via radio playing
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 2 V/m mean measured - DECT handset
electric field strength 2.7 V/m mean measured - DECT base station
Exposure 12
Main characteristics
Frequency 1,800–1,900 MHz
Type
Exposure duration 30 min daily DECT handset + 30 min daily mobile phone for 6 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae); 30 min daily DECT handset + 30 min daily mobile phone for 4 days (D. melanogaster) (follicles)
Additional info DECT handset and GSM mobile phone (consecutively)
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 100 Hz
Additional info GSM mobile phone: pulse repetition rate 217 Hz DECT handset: pulse repetition rate 100 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup voice simulation was performed via radio playing
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 2 V/m mean measured - DECT-handset
electric field strength 22 V/m mean measured - mobile phone
SAR 1.2 W/kg - - - mobile phone, according to manufacturer
Exposure 13
Main characteristics
Frequency 900–2,480 MHz
Type
Exposure duration 30 min daily for 9 days (D. virilis) (F1 pupae); 30 min daily for 7 days (D. virilis) (follicles)
Additional info bluetooth and GSM mobile phone (simultaneously)
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 400 ms
Repetition frequency 133.3 Hz
Additional info GSM mobile phone: pulse repetition rate 217 Hz bluetooth: pulse width 0.4 s; pulse repetition rate 133.3 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup voice simulation was performed via radio playing
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 0.3 V/m mean measured - bluetooth device
electric field strength 12 V/m mean measured - mobile phone
SAR 1.2 W/kg - - - mobile phone, according to manufacturer
Exposure 14
Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Type
Exposure duration 6 min daily for 4 days (D. virilis) (follicles)
Additional info CW and GSM mobile phone (simultaneously)
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Additional info GSM mobile phone: pulse repetition rate 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup voice simulation was performed via radio playing
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 20 V/m mean measured - CW
electric field strength 22 V/m mean measured - mobile phone
SAR 1.2 W/kg - - - mobile phone, according to manufacturer
Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated material:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

In fruit flies exposed to an electromagnetic field (all sources), significant more apoptotic follicles were found in comparison to the unexposed control. Additionally, the number of viable F1 pupae was significantly decreased after exposure to the diverse electromagnetic field sources when compared to the control group. However, no cumulative effect was found when exposure duration was increased or different exposure sources were used one after the other.
The authors conclude that electromagnetic fields emitted from different sources could impair the reproduction of the fruit fly Drosophila spec..
Study character:

Study funded by

  • European Union (EU)/European Commission

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