Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Application of (1)H-NMR-based metabolomics for detecting injury induced by long-term microwave exposure in Wistar rats' urine. med./bio.

Published in: Anal Bioanal Chem 2012; 404 (1): 69-78

Aim of study (acc. to author)

The study aimed to identify sensitive urinary biomarkers for the detection of injury induced by microwave exposure in rats using 1H NMR.

Background/further details

20 rats were exposed and 20 rats were sham exposed. Urine samples were collected over a 24 h period in metabolic cages at 7 days, 21 days, 2 months, and 6 months after exposure (5 animals/time point).

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1:
  • unspecified
Exposure duration: continuous for 6 min/day, 5 days/week during one month
  • power density: 5 mW/cm² average over time
  • SAR: 2.1 W/kg average over mass (whole body)

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency
  • unspecified
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 6 min/day, 5 days/week during one month
Exposure setup
Exposure source
  • not specified
Setup rats kept in individual polypropylene cages during exposure
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 5 mW/cm² average over time - - -
SAR 2.1 W/kg average over mass - whole body -

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Urine metabolic profiles of exposed rats were significantly different from those of sham exposed animals at 7 days, 21 days, and 2 months after exposure. Metabolites returned to normal levels six months after exposure.
These data indicate that energy metabolism, particularly the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and amino acid, monoamine, and choline metabolism, were affected by long-term microwave exposure. Furthermore, metabolites of neurotransmitters (taurine, hippurate, phenylalanine, and tyrosine) were identified in urine as potential biomarkers of injury induced by long-term microwave exposure.

Study character:

Study funded by

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