Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

The effects of long-term exposure to a 2450 MHz electromagnetic field on growth and pubertal development in female Wistar rats. med./bio.

Published in: Electromagn Biol Med 2015; 34 (1): 63-71

Aim of study (acc. to author)

The effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure of female rats to 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field on growth and development should be investigated.

Background/further details

Dams were divided into 2 groups: exposure to the electromagnetic field (n=4) and sham exposure (n=8). The (sham) exposure period started after fertilization and ended with birth. Until the weaning, mothers and pubs were kept together without exposure. After 21 days, 2 young rats from each mother were choosen randomly and the following groups were created (n=8 each): 1) prenatal and postnatal exposure (pups from exposed dams), 2) postnatal exposure only and 3) sham exposure (groups 2+3 both with pups from sham exposed dams). Animals were killed and examined when they reached puberty.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 1 hour/day during gestation until birth and after weaning until puberty
  • SAR: 0.143 W/kg mean (whole body)
  • power: 0.8 W maximum (output power; tuned to obtain a constant SAR value)
Exposure 2: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 1 hour/day after weaning until puberty
  • SAR: 0.143 W/kg mean (whole body)
  • power: 0.8 W maximum (output power; tuned to obtain a constant SAR value)

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
Type
Charakteristic
Exposure duration continuous for 1 hour/day during gestation until birth and after weaning until puberty
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
  • monopole
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 5 cm
Chamber EMF-shielded room (size approx. over 120 cm) made of stainless steel sheets covering the walls (average shielding effectiveness value was 100 dB on the frequency band of 1-6 GHz)
Setup 6 animals were exposed simultaneously in restrainers in 3 different sizes according to the size of the animal (carousel setup around monopole)
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 0.143 W/kg mean measured and calculated whole body -
power 0.8 W maximum - - output power; tuned to obtain a constant SAR value

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
Type
Charakteristic
Exposure duration continuous for 1 hour/day after weaning until puberty
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 0.143 W/kg mean measured and calculated whole body -
power 0.8 W maximum - - output power; tuned to obtain a constant SAR value

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • before exposure
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The mass gain per day was significantly lower and the puberty was reached significantly later in the prenatal and postnatal exposed rats (groups 1) compared to postnatal (group 2) and sham exposed rats (group 3). Oxidative stress was significantly increased in group 1 and the serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone were significantly higher in both exposure groups compared to the sham exposure group.
Histology of the brain and ovary as well as all other parameters did not show any significant differences between the groups.
The authors conclude that prenatal and postnatal exposure of rats to 2.45 GHz electromagnetic field might influence growth and development, especially when both exposure scenarios are combined.

Study character:

Study funded by

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