Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Liver antioxidant stores protect the brain from electromagnetic radiation (900 and 1800 MHz)-induced oxidative stress in rats during pregnancy and the development of offspring. med./bio.

Published in: J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2014; 27 (18): 1915-1921

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To investigate the effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones on oxidative stress in the brain and liver of young rats.

Background/further details

32 pregnant rats were equally divided into three groups: 1.) control group, 2.) exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field and 3.) exposure to a 1800 MHz electromagnetic field. From each group 24 male pups were chosen and subjected to the same exposure condition as the respective dam. The young rats were killed and examined in the age of 4, 5, and 6 weeks (n=8 per group and time point).

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: 1 hour per day, starting in utero until the age of 4, 5, or 6 weeks
  • SAR: 0.001 W/kg minimum (whole body)
  • SAR: 0.15 W/kg mean (whole body) (or 0.1 W/kg? contradictory information given)
  • SAR: 1.1 W/kg maximum (whole body)
  • power density: 12 µW/cm² (input power)
  • electric field strength: 10 V/m (or 11 V/m? contradictory information given; measured at the closest point of the body)
Exposure 2: 1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: 1 hour per day, starting in utero until the age of 4, 5, or 6 weeks
  • SAR: 0.001 W/kg minimum (whole body)
  • SAR: 0.15 W/kg mean (whole body) (or 0.1 W/kg? contradictory information given)
  • SAR: 1.1 W/kg maximum (whole body)
  • power density: 12 µW/cm² (input power)
  • electric field strength: 10 V/m (or 11 V/m? contradictory information given; measured at the closest point of the body)

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Type
Waveform
Exposure duration 1 hour per day, starting in utero until the age of 4, 5, or 6 weeks
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 1 cm
Setup generator was equipped with a half-wave dipole antenna system; exposure system was kept in a specific room with plastic furniture to prevent possible radiation reflection; walls of the room were completely covered by chromium-nickel metals for protection from possible outside telemetric exposure; as shown by a picture, rats were exposed simultaneously in plastic cylinders with its heads to the antenna
Additional info contradictory information given about control group: in one sentence it is stated that control group rats were placed in a cylindrical container with the radiofrequency source switched off; another sentence says that the control animals were kept in their cage without any treatment or restraint of any kind.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 0.001 W/kg minimum calculated whole body -
SAR 0.15 W/kg mean calculated whole body or 0.1 W/kg? contradictory information given
SAR 1.1 W/kg maximum calculated whole body -
power density 12 µW/cm² - - - input power
electric field strength 10 V/m - measured - or 11 V/m? contradictory information given; measured at the closest point of the body

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 1,800 MHz
Type
Waveform
Exposure duration 1 hour per day, starting in utero until the age of 4, 5, or 6 weeks
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 0.001 W/kg minimum calculated whole body -
SAR 0.15 W/kg mean calculated whole body or 0.1 W/kg? contradictory information given
SAR 1.1 W/kg maximum calculated whole body -
power density 12 µW/cm² - - - input power
electric field strength 10 V/m - measured - or 11 V/m? contradictory information given; measured at the closest point of the body

Reference articles

  • Ozorak A et al. (2013): Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz)- and Mobile Phone (900 and 1800 MHz)-Induced Risks on Oxidative Stress and Elements in Kidney and Testis of Rats During Pregnancy and the Development of Offspring.
  • Jin Z et al. (2012): The Effect of Combined Exposure of 900 MHz Radiofrequency Fields and Doxorubicin in HL-60 Cells.
  • Turker Y et al. (2011): Selenium and L-Carnitine Reduce Oxidative Stress in the Heart of Rat Induced by 2.45-GHz Radiation from Wireless Devices.
  • Koyu A et al. (2005): Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Modulates 1800 MHz Microwave-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Liver.
  • Peyman A et al. (2001): Changes in the dielectric properties of rat tissue as a function of age at microwave frequencies.

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Malformation or prenatal death was not observed during the experiment.
In the liver and brain of exposed rats (900 MHz and 1800 MHz), the enzyme activity of the glutathione peroxidase (in 4- and 5-week-old rats) was significantly decreased compared to the control group. In the brain of both exposure groups, the level of vitamin A (in 4-, 5-, and 6-week-old rats) and the level of beta-carotene (in 4- and 5-week-old rats) were significantly increased when compared to the control animals. In the liver of exposed rats, the lipid peroxidation (in 4-, 5-, and 6-week old rats) was significant increased in comparison to the control, while the levels of vitamin A and beta-carotene were significantly decreased (in 4-, 5-, and 6-week old rats).
In 4-, 5-, and 6-week-old rats, the exposed groups showed significant increases regarding iron levels compared to the control, while the selenium concentration was significantly decreased in 6-week-old exposed rats.
The authors conclude that electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones could be a cause of oxidative brain and liver injuries in young rats.

Study character:

Study funded by

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