Nonpulsed sinusoidal electromagnetic fields as a noninvasive strategy in bone repair: the effect on human mesenchymal stem cell osteogenic differentiation
Published in: Tissue Eng Part C Methods 2015; 21 (2): 207-217
Aim of study (acc. to author)
static and 50 Hz magnetic field was used to generate a Ca 2+- ion cyclotron resonance frequency, which was found to have biological effects in former studies by the authors ( Ledda et al. (2013), De Carlo et al. (2012), Gaetani et al. (2009)). Dexamethasone, a glucocorticoid, was used as a positive control and in a co-exposure, as it induces the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Cells were divided into the following groups: 1) combined magnetic field, 2) dexamethasone (100 nM), 3) combined magnetic field and dexamethasone and 4) untreated control group. Cells were exposed after 3, 4 and 5 weeks of cultivation for 3 and 5 days, respectively, and were analyzed thereafter. Additionally, cells were examined 3 days after termination of exposure. Endpoint
mu-metal shielded room
exposure system consisted of a cellular incubator made of polymethyl methacrylate with 37°C ± 0.1°C and 5% CO 2 and a solenoid (5-mm-thick polyvinyl chloride cylinder with 3.3 m length and 33 cm diameter made of 3300 turns of 1 mm diameter copper wire)
Ledda M et al.
Non ionising radiation as a non chemical strategy in regenerative medicine: Ca(2+)-ICR "In Vitro" effect on neuronal differentiation and tumorigenicity modulation in NT2 cells
De Carlo F et al.
Non- ionizing radiation as a non invasive strategy in regenerative medicine: the effect of Ca2+-ICR on Mouse Skeletal Muscle Cell growth and differentiation
Gaetani R et al.
Differentiation of human adult cardiac stem cells exposed to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields
Geomagnetic cyclotron resonance in living cells
Main outcome of study (acc. to author)
Cell proliferation was significantly reduced in the magnetic field exposure group (group 1) and MF/ dexamethasone co-exposure group (group 3) compared to the control group and dexamethasone exposure group (group 2), respectively, in 3- and 4-week-old cell cultures. After 5 weeks, however, proliferation was significantly increased in group 1 compared to the control group. Morphologically, groups 1 and 2 showed distinct differences which had larger, polygonal-shaped cells and a widespread actin network compared to the control group with elongated spindle-shaped cells and peripheral actin filaments. In group 3, this appearance was even more pronounced. The gene expressions of several osteogenic markers, except for osteoprotegerin, were significantly upregulated in group 1 ( MF alone) and group 3 ( co-exposure) compared to the control group and group 2 ( dexamethasone alone), respectively (remark EMF-Portal: results in text and figure are contradictory and not clear). The gene expression of osteoprotegerin was significantly reduced in groups (co-) exposed to dexamethasone (2 and 3) and significantly increased in group 2 compared to the control group. The protein expressions of alkaline phosphatase and osteopontin were significantly upregulated in all exposure groups 1-3 compared to the control group. The authors conclude that exposure of human mesenchymal stem cells to a combined static and 50 Hz magnetic field could induce a differentiation towards a bone phenotype and a sustainable stimulation of osteogenesis, what might be of therapeutic use.
Study funded by
Istituto Nazionale Per L'Assicurazione Contro Gli Infortuni Sul Lavoro (INAIL; Italian Workers' Compensation Authority), Italy
Zhou J et al.
Sinusoidal Electromagnetic Fields Increase Peak Bone Mass in Rats by Activating Wnt10b/β-Catenin in Primary Cilia of Osteoblasts
Xie YF et al.
Pulsed electromagnetic fields stimulate osteogenic differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts by upregulating the expression of BMPRII localized at the base of primary cilium
Yan JL et al.
Pulsed electromagnetic fields promote osteoblast mineralization and maturation needing the existence of primary cilia
Li K et al.
Effects of PEMF exposure at different pulses on osteogenesis of MC3T3-E1 cells
Yu JZ et al.
Osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells regulated by osteoblasts under EMF exposure in a co-culture system
Song MY et al.
The time-dependent manner of sinusoidal electromagnetic fields on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization
Zhou J et al.
Different electromagnetic field waveforms have different effects on proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of osteoblasts in vitro
Liu C et al.
Effect of 1 mT Sinusoidal Electromagnetic Fields on Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation of Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
Zhong C et al.
Effects of Low-Intensity Electromagnetic Fields on the Proliferation and Differentiation of Cultured Mouse Bone Marrow Stromal Stem Cells
Zhou J et al.
Effects of 50 Hz sinusoidal electromagnetic fields of different intensities on proliferation, differentiation and mineralization potentials of rat osteoblasts
Lin HY et al.
In vitro effects of low frequency electromagnetic fields on osteoblast proliferation and maturation in an inflammatory environment
Yang Y et al.
EMF acts on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to promote differentiation to osteoblasts and to inhibit differentiation to adipocytes
Zhao D et al.
Electromagnetic field change the expression of osteogenesis genes in murine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells
Schwartz Z et al.
Pulsed electromagnetic fields enhance BMP-2 dependent osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells
Zhang X et al.
Effects of different extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on osteoblasts
Funk RH et al.
Effects of electromagnetic fields on cells: physiological and therapeutical approaches and molecular mechanisms of interaction. A review
Sul AR et al.
Effects of sinusoidal electromagnetic field on structure and function of different kinds of cell lines
Wu H et al.
Effect of electromagnetic fields on proliferation and differentiation of cultured mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells