Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Effects of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on the development of Japanese quail cerebellum med./bio.

Published in: Teratology 1982; 25 (1): 115-121

Aim of study (acc. to editor)

This study was conducted to investigate possible effects of 2.45 GHz irradiation during embryogenesis on the cerebellum development in quails.

Background/further details

Nine to 11sham exposed or irradiated embryos each were examined directly, one and two days after the exposure. In order to examine the long-term effect of microwave irradiation, some of the quails (27 exposed, 18 sham exposed) were reared to eight weeks of age.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous from day 1 through day 12 of incubation

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
Exposure duration continuous from day 1 through day 12 of incubation
Additional info exposure and measurement not described here in detail, reference is made to McRee et al. 1975 (TER-144)
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
  • not specified
Chamber anechoic enviromental chamber, Styrofoam holder
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 50 W/m² mean cf. remarks - +/-0.52 mW/cm?

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

A slight developmental retardation of the cerebellum was found in the investigated cerebellar cortex layers (molecular layer, Purkinje cell layer, and external granular layer) of the irradiated embryos. The effects included the growth and subsequent decline of the external granular layer, the growth of the molecular layer, the cellular differentiation and the alignment of Purkinje cells, and the accumulation of granule cells beneath the Purkinje cell layer, as well as lower body and brain weights.
In the eight-week-old quails, no significant differences were observed between irradiated and sham exposed cerebellums.

Study character:

Study funded by

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