An exposure group (n=10) and a control group (n=10) were examined for different exposure durations. During the first 120 hours, eggs were exposed at room temperature. Then, eggs were transferred into an incubator (38°C) and exposure was continued for 38 hours, 5 days or 10 days. In the 360 hours-exposed group, tissue homogenates of brain, liver and heart were examined, while in the 158 hours- and 240 hours-exposed groups, a homogenate of the whole embryo was examined.
|Exposure 1: 900 MHz|
|Exposure 2: 900 MHz|
|Exposure 3: 900 MHz|
|Chamber||brooding was carried out in a foam plastic incubator, free of metal covers; temperature 38-38.5°C, relative humidity 60%|
|Setup||eggs placed on horizontal trays; cell phone positioned on a plastic stand inside the incubator at a distance of 3 cm from the eggs; unexposed eggs placed inside the same incubator at a distance of 10 cm from the exposed eggs and shielded by a few layers of aluminum foil; cell phone kept in connecting mode by auto-redial|
The level of superoxide was significantly increased in the 158 hours-exposed group and in the liver and the heart of the 360 hours-exposed group compared to the corresponding control groups. In all exposure groups, the level of nitrogen oxide was significantly increased compared to the control group. After 240 hours-exposure, lipid peroxidation was significantly enhanced in comparison to the control group as well as after 360 hours-exposure in the heart. In the 158 hours- and the 240 hours-exposed group, a significant higher level of oxidative DNA damage was found compared to the control group. After 240 hours-exposure, the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase was significantly decreased compared to the control group, while the enzyme activity of catalase was significantly increased. However, in the liver of 360 hours exposed embryos, the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase was significantly increased, while the enzyme activity of catalase was significantly decreased.
The authors conclude, that in ovo-exposure to a radiofrequency electromagnetic field emitted by a mobile phone could lead to oxidative stress in quail embryos.