Embryos were exposed in ovo (in the egg). Two experiments were performed: 1 a) unexposed for 38 h (n=10), 1 b) exposed for 38 h (n=10), 2 a) unexposed for 14 days and 2 b) exposed for 14 days (n=56-68 (Remark EMF-Portal: not clear if the number of samples is given only for exposure group or for both groups).
Exposure duration: continuous for 38 h
Exposure duration: continuous for 14 days
|Chamber||920 mm x 590 mm x 530 mm laboratory incubator with metal covers removed from the door and the sides and replaced by plastic covers; temperature of incubation during the first 14 days was 38.3°C; after 14 days of incubation the temperature of incubation was lowered to 37.5°C|
|Setup||eggs placed on horizontal trays; cell phone positioned on a plastic stand inside the incubator at a distance of 3 cm from the eggs; unexposed eggs placed inside the same incubator at a distance of 6 cm from the exposed eggs and shielded by aluminum foil; cell phone kept in connecting mode by auto-redial; each connecting attempt lasted 45 s; distance between the phone and the eggs: 3 cm - 10 cm|
In the first experiment, the number of somites in the exposed group increased significantly in comparison to the control group. No differences in the surface temperature of the eggs between the exposed group and the control group occurred.
In the second experiment, the survival rate of the exposed group was significantly higher than the survival rate of the control group. In the exposed group, the hatchability was significantly increased in comparison to the control group. The hatching took place 3-4 hours earlier in the exposed group as compared with the control.
In day-old chicks, which were exposed in ovo, the level of lipid peroxidation in the liver and in the brain was significantly increased in comparison to the control group. The level of lipid peroxidation in the heart of the exposed group was higher than that of the control group, but did not reach statistical significance.
The authors conclude that in ovo exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field stimulates the early development of the embryo and increases the total survival rate in Japanese quails. The observed effects could be explained by increased levels of lipid peroxidation in brains and livers of the embryos.