Four groups of fertilized eggs were examined (n=10-12 per group): 1.) control group, 38 h brooding, 2.) exposed during 38 h brooding, 3.) control group, 120 h at room temperature, then 38 h brooding (158 h in total) and 4.) exposed during 120 h at room temperature, then during 38 h brooding (158 h in total). Brooding took place in incubators (38°C). Control groups and exposure groups were brooded at the same time, however the control eggs were shielded against the electromagnetic fields by 6 layers of aluminium foil.
|Exposure 1: 890–915 Hz|
|Exposure 2: 890–915 MHz|
|Chamber||laboratory incubator (metal covers from the door and the sides removed and replaced by plastic covers); temperature 38.3±0.2°C, relative humidity 60%|
|Setup||eggs placed on horizontal trays; cell phone positioned on a plastic stand inside the incubator at a distance of 3 cm from the eggs; unexposed eggs placed inside the same incubator at a distance of 10 cm from the exposed eggs and shielded by 6 layer of an aluminum foil (each foil was 0.03 mm thick); cell phone kept in connecting mode by auto-redial; each connecting attempt lasted 48 s; distance between the phone and the eggs: 3 cm - 10 cm|
No malformations in the embryos occurred and no differences in the surface temperature of the eggs were found between the groups.
In the 38 hours-exposed group, a significant increased number of differentiated somites was observed in comparison to the corresponding control group. Additionally, DNA strand breaks were significantly decreased compared to the control group. An exposure for 158 hours significantly decreased the number of differentiated somites and resulted in a significant increase of DNA strand breaks compared to the control group.
The authors conclude that mobile phone-exposure can stimulate or depress the embryogenesis of Japanese quails and that this effect could depend on the exposure duration.