Fertilized eggs were divided into 4 groups (n=50 per group): 1.) no exposure, 2.) exposed to a mobile phone in the "standby mode", 3.) exposed to a mobile phone in the "calling mode" and 4.) exposed to a mobile phone in the "talking mode". Eggs were opened and examined after 30, 48 or 72 hours.
No parameters are specified for this exposure.
In group 3, closing of the neural tube was completed only after 72 hours, while in the other groups this developmental stage was already completed after 48 hours.
In tissue slices of the neural tube received from group 3 after 30- and 48-hours exposure, the TUNEL assay showed significantly increased apoptosis rates compared to not exposed tissue slices.
The immunoreactivity of caspase-3 and caspase-8 was highest in group 3 at all time points in comparison to the other groups, while the immunoreactivity of caspase-9 was highest in group 2 after 72-hours exposure.
The authors conclude that exposure to mobile phones could have a deleterious effect on the neural tube development of chick embryos.