The study intended to simulate the conditions some workers in Iran are exposed to (electromagnetic fields and sultry, hot climate).
Twelve male mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n=3, respectively): 1) control group, 2) electromagnetic field exposure, 3) heat (60°C) and 4) electromagnetic field exposure + heat.
Exposure duration: 8 hours/day for 5 days/week (not stated how many weeks)
|Exposure duration||8 hours/day for 5 days/week (not stated how many weeks)|
|Modulation type||cf. additional info|
|Chamber||plexi-glass chamber (50 x 50 x 50 cm3), in which mice were allowed to move freely|
|Setup||microwave signal generator was used to generate microwaves, exposure chamber was surrounded by pyramid-shaped polyurethane walls to prevent reflection; heating was done by an electric heater and humidity (50%) was controlled by spraying water into the room|
The number of Leydig cells was significantly reduced in all exposure groups (groups 2-4) compared to the control group (group 1). Further histological differences were found between the exposure groups (e.g. scarcely sperms in the ductus deferens in group 2) and the control groups, however it is not clear if these differences are significant.
In all exposure groups (groups 2-4), the number of sperm cells with normal morphology was significantly decreased compared to the control group. Additionally, in heat exposed mice (group 3) were the sperm motility, the sperm viability, and the mean sperm count significantly reduced compared to the control group.
The gene expression of Bax was significantly increased in mice exposed to heat compared to the control group while for Bcl2 gene expression, the level was significantly decreased in mice exposed to electromagnetic fields and heat (group 4).
The authors conclude that exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field alone or combined with heat as well as heat alone may have adverse effects on sperm parameters and gene expression in mice.