Home
Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Radiofrequency radiation (900 MHz)-induced DNA damage and cell cycle arrest in testicular germ cells in swiss albino mice.

Published in: Toxicol Ind Health 2017; 33 (4): 373-384

Aim of study (acc. to author)

The effects of exposure of mice to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field (GSM) on the cell cycle and DNA damage in sperms and testes histology should be investigated.
Background/further details: Mice were divided into 5 groups (n=15 each): exposure to the electromagnetic field for 1) 4 h/day for 35 days, 2) 4 h/day for 35 days and subsequent unexposed maintenance for 35 days, 3) 8 h/day for 35 days, 4) 8 h/day for 35 days and subsequent unexposed maintenance for 35 days, 5) control group. Groups 2 and 4 were used to analyze post-exposure recovery effects.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 902.4 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: 4 h/day for 35 days
Exposure 2: 902.4 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: 8 h/day for 35 days
Exposure 1
Main characteristics
Frequency 902.4 MHz
Type
Exposure duration 4 h/day for 35 days
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Additional info similar to GSM
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber chromium-nickel metal container
Setup animals could move freely during exposure; minimum and maximum distance of animals from antenna was 4.5 cm and 22.5 cm
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 2.717 W/m² maximum measured - at minimum distance of animals to antenna (4.5 cm)
power density 0.284 W/m² minimum measured - at maximum distance of animals to antenna (22.5 cm)
SAR 0.0516 W/kg maximum - - -
SAR 0.0054 W/kg minimum - - -
power 250 mW mean measured - -
Exposure 2
Main characteristics
Frequency 902.4 MHz
Type
Exposure duration 8 h/day for 35 days
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Additional info similar to GSM
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 2.717 W/m² maximum measured - at minimum distance of animals to antenna (4.5 cm)
power density 0.284 W/m² minimum measured - at maximum distance of animals to antenna (22.5 cm)
SAR 0.0516 W/kg maximum - - -
SAR 0.0054 W/kg minimum - - -
power 250 mW mean measured - -
Exposed system:
  • animal
  • mouse/swiss albino
  • whole body

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated material:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Exposure to the electromagnetic field of groups 3 and 4 caused a significantly reduced mitochondrial membrane potential compared to the control group, though potential was higher after recovery (group 4). Depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane leads to impaired cellular redox homeostasis causing oxidative stress.
The number of abnormal sperm cells with head defects was significantly increased in exposure groups 1, 3 and 4 compared to the control group.
Analysis of germ cell subpopulations in testis showed a significant increase of spermatogonia and a significant decrease in spermatids in groups 3 and 4 compared to the control group. This indicated cell cycle arrest in the pre-meiotic stage of spermatogenesis, which resulted in loss of post-meiotic germ cells.
Histological investigation showed significantly reduced epithelial area and significantly increased loss of tissue in seminiferous tubules in group 3 compared to the control group, but not in group 4. DNA damage was significantly increased in exposure groups 1, 3 and 4 compared to the control group, with most damage found in groups 1 and 3.
The authors conclude that exposure of mice to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field (GSM) might induce oxidative stress, which causes DNA damage that leads to alterations of the cell cycle and to testicular damage. However, these effects might be reversible.
Study character:

Study funded by

  • University Grants Commission (UGC), India
  • Department of Science and Technology (DST), India

Related articles

  • Gohari FA et al. (2017): An Experimental Study of the Effects of Combined Exposure to Microwave and Heat on Gene Expression and Sperm Parameters in Mice.
  • Tumkaya L et al. (2016): Mobile phone radiation during pubertal development has no effect on testicular histology in rats.
  • Sokolovic D et al. (2015): The Effects of Melatonin on Oxidative Stress Parameters and DNA Fragmentation in Testicular Tissue of Rats Exposed to Microwave Radiation.
  • Odaci E et al. (2015): Exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field for 1 hour a day over 30 days does change the histopathology and biochemistry of the rat testis.
  • Mugunthan N et al. (2014): Effects of long term exposure to a 2G cell phone radiation (900 - 1900 MHz) on mouse testis.
  • Tas M et al. (2014): Long-term effects of 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from mobile phone on testicular tissue and epididymal semen quality.
  • Kumar S et al. (2014): Effect of electromagnetic irradiation produced by 3G mobile phone on male rat reproductive system in a simulated scenario.
  • Karaman MI et al. (2014): The effects of electromagnetic waves emitted by the cell phones on the testicular tissue.
  • Jelodar G et al. (2013): The prophylactic effect of vitamin C on induced oxidative stress in rat testis following exposure to 900 MHz radio frequency wave generated by a BTS antenna model.
  • Kumar S et al. (2013): Influence of electromagnetic fields on reproductive system of male rats.
  • Trosic I et al. (2013): Histological and cytological examination of rat reproductive tissue after short-time intermittent radiofrequency exposure.
  • Hanci H et al. (2013): The effect of prenatal exposure to 900-megahertz electromagnetic field on the 21-old-day rat testicle.
  • Al-Damegh MA (2012): Rat testicular impairment induced by electromagnetic radiation from a conventional cellular telephone and the protective effects of the antioxidants vitamins C and E.
  • Celik S et al. (2012): An evaluation of the effects of long-term cell phone use on the testes via light and electron microscope analysis.
  • Kesari KK et al. (2012): Evidence for mobile phone radiation exposure effects on reproductive pattern of male rats: role of ROS.
  • Ozlem Nisbet H et al. (2012): Effects of exposure to electromagnetic field (1.8/0.9 GHz) on testicular function and structure in growing rats.
  • Lee HJ et al. (2012): The effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on rat testicular function.
  • Imai N et al. (2011): Effects on rat testis of 1.95-GHz W-CDMA for IMT-2000 cellular phones.
  • Kesari KK et al. (2011): Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic wave exposure from cellular phones on the reproductive pattern in male wistar rats.
  • Meo SA et al. (2011): Hypospermatogenesis and spermatozoa maturation arrest in rats induced by mobile phone radiation.
  • Kumar S et al. (2011): Influence of microwave exposure on fertility of male rats.
  • Otitoloju AA et al. (2010): Preliminary study on the induction of sperm head abnormalities in mice, Mus musculus, exposed to radiofrequency radiations from global system for mobile communication base stations.
  • Lee HJ et al. (2010): The lack of histological changes of CDMA cellular phone-based radio frequency on rat testis.
  • Kesari KK et al. (2010): Mobile phone usage and male infertility in Wistar rats.
  • De Iuliis GN et al. (2009): Mobile phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro.
  • Mailankot M et al. (2009): Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) from GSM (0.9/1.8GHz) mobile phones induces oxidative stress and reduces sperm motility in rats.
  • Agarwal A et al. (2008): Effect of cell phone usage on semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic: an observational study.
  • Ozguner M et al. (2005): Biological and morphological effects on the reproductive organ of rats after exposure to electromagnetic field.
  • Aitken RJ et al. (2005): Impact of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation on DNA integrity in the male germline.
  • Fejes I et al. (2005): Is there a relationship between cell phone use and semen quality?
  • Dasdag S et al. (2003): Whole body exposure of rats to microwaves emitted from a cell phone does not affect the testes.