Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) from GSM (0.9/1.8GHz) mobile phones induces oxidative stress and reduces sperm motility in rats.

Published in: Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2009; 64 (6): 561-565

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To evaluate the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phones on free radical metabolism and sperm quality in reproductive tissue of rats.
Background/further details: Rats were divided into a control group and an exposure group with six animals per group.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 900 MHz–1.8 GHz
Exposure duration: continuous for 1 h/day on 28 days
Exposure 1
Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz–1.8 GHz
Exposure duration continuous for 1 h/day on 28 days
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup animals and phone kept in a 4" x 2" x 1" cage with a wooden bottom
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
No parameters are specified for this exposure.
Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated material:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

No significant difference was found in total sperm count between the control group and the exposed group. However, exposed rats exhibited a significantly reduced percentage of motile sperms. Moreover, exposure resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and low glutathione content in the testis and epididymis. Facial temperature was not affected in either group of rats.
In conclusion, the authors speculate that radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phones negatively affect semen quality and may impair male fertility.
Study character:

Study funded by

  • not stated/no funding

Related articles

  • Pandey N et al. (2017): Radiofrequency radiation (900 MHz)-induced DNA damage and cell cycle arrest in testicular germ cells in swiss albino mice.
  • Gohari FA et al. (2017): An Experimental Study of the Effects of Combined Exposure to Microwave and Heat on Gene Expression and Sperm Parameters in Mice.
  • Nakatani-Enomoto S et al. (2016): Effects of 1950 MHz W-CDMA-like signal on human spermatozoa.
  • Sokolovic D et al. (2015): The Effects of Melatonin on Oxidative Stress Parameters and DNA Fragmentation in Testicular Tissue of Rats Exposed to Microwave Radiation.
  • Dasdag S et al. (2015): Effect of long-term exposure of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi equipment on testes functions.
  • Oksay T et al. (2014): Protective effects of melatonin against oxidative injury in rat testis induced by wireless (2.45 GHz) devices.
  • Tas M et al. (2014): Long-term effects of 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from mobile phone on testicular tissue and epididymal semen quality.
  • Meena R et al. (2014): Therapeutic approaches of melatonin in microwave radiations-induced oxidative stress-mediated toxicity on male fertility pattern of Wistar rats.
  • Kumar S et al. (2014): Effect of electromagnetic irradiation produced by 3G mobile phone on male rat reproductive system in a simulated scenario.
  • Sepehrimanesh M et al. (2014): Analysis of rat testicular proteome following 30-day exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic field radiation.
  • Kumar S et al. (2013): Influence of electromagnetic fields on reproductive system of male rats.
  • Ghanbari M et al. (2013): The effects of cell phone waves (900 MHz-GSM band) on sperm parameters and total antioxidant capacity in rats.
  • Poulletier de Gannes F et al. (2013): Rat fertility and embryo fetal development: influence of exposure to the Wi-Fi signal.
  • Liu C et al. (2013): Exposure to 1800MHz Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation Induces Oxidative DNA Base Damage in a Mouse Spermatocyte-Derived Cell Line.
  • Atasoy HI et al. (2013): Immunohistopathologic demonstration of deleterious effects on growing rat testes of radiofrequency waves emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices.
  • Rago R et al. (2013): The semen quality of the mobile phone users.
  • Al-Damegh MA (2012): Rat testicular impairment induced by electromagnetic radiation from a conventional cellular telephone and the protective effects of the antioxidants vitamins C and E.
  • Kesari KK et al. (2012): Evidence for mobile phone radiation exposure effects on reproductive pattern of male rats: role of ROS.
  • Kumar S et al. (2012): Impact of microwave at X-band in the aetiology of male infertility.
  • Ozlem Nisbet H et al. (2012): Effects of exposure to electromagnetic field (1.8/0.9 GHz) on testicular function and structure in growing rats.
  • Lee HJ et al. (2012): The effects of simultaneous combined exposure to CDMA and WCDMA electromagnetic fields on rat testicular function.
  • Kesari KK et al. (2011): Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic wave exposure from cellular phones on the reproductive pattern in male wistar rats.
  • Kumar S et al. (2011): Influence of microwave exposure on fertility of male rats.
  • Chaturvedi CM et al. (2011): 2.45 GHz (CW) microwave irradiation alters circadian organization, spatial memory, DNA structure in the brain cells and blood cell counts of male mice, Mus musculus.
  • Imai N et al. (2011): Effects on rat testis of 1.95-GHz W-CDMA for IMT-2000 cellular phones.
  • Kesari KK et al. (2010): Microwave exposure affecting reproductive system in male rats.
  • Lee HJ et al. (2010): The lack of histological changes of CDMA cellular phone-based radio frequency on rat testis.
  • Otitoloju AA et al. (2010): Preliminary study on the induction of sperm head abnormalities in mice, Mus musculus, exposed to radiofrequency radiations from global system for mobile communication base stations.
  • Kesari KK et al. (2010): Mobile phone usage and male infertility in Wistar rats.
  • Sommer AM et al. (2009): Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (UMTS) on reproduction and development of mice: a multi-generation study.
  • Agarwal A et al. (2009): Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen: an in vitro pilot study.
  • De Iuliis GN et al. (2009): Mobile phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro.
  • Dasdag S et al. (2008): Mobile phone exposure does not induce apoptosis on spermatogenesis in rats.
  • Yan JG et al. (2007): Effects of cellular phone emissions on sperm motility in rats.
  • Erogul O et al. (2006): Effects of electromagnetic radiation from a cellular phone on human sperm motility: an in vitro study.
  • Ozguner M et al. (2005): Biological and morphological effects on the reproductive organ of rats after exposure to electromagnetic field.
  • Dasdag S et al. (2003): Whole body exposure of rats to microwaves emitted from a cell phone does not affect the testes.
  • Dasdag S et al. (1999): Whole-body microwave exposure emitted by cellular phones and testicular function of rats.