Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Effect of 50-Hz Magnetic Fields on Serum IL-1β and IL-23 and Expression of BLIMP-1, XBP-1, and IRF-4. med./bio.

Published in: Inflammation 2019; 42 (5): 1800-1807

Aim of study (acc. to author)

The effects of exposure of rats to 50 Hz magnetic fields on serum cytokine levels and expression of immune system related genes should be investigated.

Background/further details

A total of 80 rats was divided into the following groups (groups sizes not mentioned): exposure to a magnetic field of 1) 1 µT, 2) 100 µT, 3) 500 µT, 4) 2000 µT and 5) control group. Blood was drawn from all animals for the first time after the first month of exposure (pre-immunization phase). Then animals were injected with human serum albumin three times over the course of the second month to stimulate the immune system. At the end of exposure (after 2 months; post-immunization phase), all animals were killed, the second blood sample was drawn and spleens were removed.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 50 Hz
Exposure duration: 2 hours/day for 2 months
Exposure 2: 50 Hz
Exposure duration: 2 hours/day for 2 months
Exposure 3: 50 Hz
Exposure duration: 2 hours/day for 2 months
Exposure 4: 50 Hz
Exposure duration: 2 hours/day for 2 months

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 50 Hz
Type
Exposure duration 2 hours/day for 2 months
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup exposure system consisted of solenoids (lengths 2 m, internal diameters 40 cm) coiled with different turns of copper wires (diameter 2 mm) around polyvinyl chloride cylinders; the combination of different turns of wires with different electrical potential in each solenoid produced a different magnetic flux density for each exposure group
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 1 µT - measured - -

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 50 Hz
Type
Exposure duration 2 hours/day for 2 months
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 100 µT - measured - -

Exposure 3

Main characteristics
Frequency 50 Hz
Type
Exposure duration 2 hours/day for 2 months
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 500 µT - measured - -

Exposure 4

Main characteristics
Frequency 50 Hz
Type
Exposure duration 2 hours/day for 2 months
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 2,000 µT - measured - -

Reference articles

  • Mahdavinejad L et al. (2018): Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Decrease Serum Levels of Interleukin-17, Transforming Growth Factor-β and Downregulate Foxp3 Expression in the Spleen.
  • Salehi I et al. (2013): Exposure of rats to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) alters cytokines production.

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Serum level of IL-1β was significantly decreased in groups 1 and 2 (1 µT and 100 µT) at pre-immunization phase compared to the control group, whereas IL-23 level was significantly increased in group 2 at post-immunization phase compared to the control group. No significant differences were observed among IL-1 β and IL-23 between post- and pre-immunization phases in any group.
The expression levels of BLIMP-1, XBP-1 and IRF-4 were significantly decreased in group 2 compared to the control group at post-immunization phase.
The authors conclude that exposure of rats to a weak 50 Hz magnetic field (100 µT) may decrease inflammation and immune response after short exposure durations and increase it after longer durations.

Study character:

Study funded by

Related articles