Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Protective effect of procyanidins extracted from the lotus seedpod on immune function injury induced by extremely low frequency electromagnetic field. med./bio.

Published in: Biomed Pharmacother 2016; 82: 364-372

Aim of study (acc. to author)

The effects of exposure of mice to a 50 Hz magnetic field on the immune functions of the spleen and the protective effect of lotus seedpod procyanidins should be investigated.

Background/further details

Several studies showed that procyanidins have several biological functions, among others, they might enhance the function of the immune system.
Mice were divided into 5 groups (n=10 each): 1) exposure to the magnetic field and saline solution administration, 2) exposure to the magnetic field and administration of 30 mg/kg lotus seedpod procyanidins (LSPC) extract, 3) exposure to the magnetic field and administration of 60 mg/kg LSPC extract, 4) exposure to the magnetic field and administration of 90 mg/kg LSPC extract, 5) control group.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 50 Hz
Exposure duration: 4 h/day for 28 days

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 50 Hz
Type
Exposure duration 4 h/day for 28 days
Exposure setup
Exposure source
  • not specified
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 8 mT - - - -

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Exposure to the magnetic field (group 1) resulted in a significant reduction of relative weights of thymus, spleen and kidney compared to the control group. Mice with an additional administration of 90 mg/kg LSPCs (group 4), however, showed a significant increase of the organ weights compared to group 1.
The amounts of leukocytes, lymphocytes and hemoglobin were significantly reduced in group 1 compared to the control group, while they were significantly increased in group 4 compared to group 1.
The protein expressions of INF-gamma, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly reduced and the expression of TNF-alpha was significantly increased in group 1 compared to the control group. These effects were significantly reduced in groups 3 and 4.
The DNA content was significantly reduced in group 1 compared to the control group and it was significantly increased in group 4 compared to group 1.
The number of early and late apoptotic splenocytes was significantly reduced in group 1 compared to the control group and it was significantly increased in groups 3 and 4 compared to group 1.
In cell cycle analysis, group 1 had a significant larger G0 phase/G1 phase fraction and smaller S phase fraction compared to the control group. This effect was reduced by an additional LSPCs treatment (groups 2-4).
The magnetic field (group 1) significantly reduced Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl protein expression and significantly increased Bax, Caspase-3 and -9 levels. These effects were attenuated by LSPCs treatment and in group 4 there were significant differences in all expression levels compared to group 1.
The authors conclude that exposure of mice to a 50 Hz magnetic field might impair splenocytes via activation of Bax, caspases-3 and -9, and that lotus seedpod procyanidins could have a protective effect.

Study character:

Study funded by

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