Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Observations of mouse fetuses after irradiation with 2.45 GHz microwaves med./bio.

Published in: Health Phys 1978; 35 (6): 791-801

Aim of study (acc. to author)

This in vivo study was performed to investigate the effects of microwave exposure during pregnancy in mice fetuses.

Background/further details

A total of 1008 female mice (589 sham exposed and 519 mice microwave exposed) were used. All pregnant mice were killed on the 18th day after breeding and their fetuses examined.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous for 100 min/day for up to 17 days

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
Exposure duration continuous for 100 min/day for up to 17 days
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber polycarbonate plastic cage 6 cm on a side, 1.5 mm thick; 1mm thick pvc plastic lid, 6-8 ventilation holes at each side with 5 mm diameter
Setup cages placed in styrofoam forms to ensure the exact positioning in the field
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 3.4 mW/cm² minimum calculated - 3.4, 13.6, 14, 28 mW/cm²
power density 28 mW/cm² maximum calculated - -
SAR 4.05 mW/g mean calculated unspecified 4.05 - 7.37 mW/g

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The microwave exoposure at the highest power density (28 mW/cm2) decreased significantly the mean live fetal weight per litter. A significantly increased incidence of cranioschisis (congenital failure of the skull to close, usually accompanied by defective development of the brain) was observed in exposed fetuses.
The exposure of the dams at either power density did not result in higher core temperature. Therfore, a thermal cause as reason for the observed effects on fetus can be excluded.
It appears that microwaves at the range used could be teratogenic.

Study character:

Study funded by

Related articles