Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Effects of microwave exposure in utero on embryonal, fetal and postnatal development of mice. med./bio.

Published in: Biol Neonate 1983; 44 (6): 339-348

Aim of study (acc. to author)

This in vivo study was conducted to investigate possible teratogenic effects of 2.45 GHz microwave irradiation in mice.

Background/further details

30 female mice (6-8 weeks old) per group were exposed during different gestation time periods at either 40 mW/cm2 (thermal power density),10 mW/cm2 (athermal power density) or sham exposed (control group) to examine effects of microwave exposure on the embryonal development (see exposure 1), on the fetal development (see exposure 2), and on the postnatal development (see exposure 3).

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: 2 h/day for 4 days
Exposure 2: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: 2 h/day for 7 days or 10 days or 18 days
  • SAR: 4 mW/g minimum (whole body) (for exposure with 10 mW/cm²)
  • SAR: 5 mW/g maximum (whole body) (for exposure with 10 mW/cm²)
  • SAR: 16 mW/g minimum (whole body) (for exposure with 40 mW/cm²)
  • SAR: 18 mW/g maximum (whole body) (for exposure with 40 mW/cm²)
  • power density: 10 mW/cm² (group 1 to group 3)
  • power density: 40 mW/cm² (group 4 to group 6)
Exposure 3: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: 2 h/day for 18 days

General information

for exposure 1: group 1: 10 mW/cm² for the first four days of pregnancy group 2: 40 mW/cm² for the first four days of pregnancy sham exposure group for exposure 2: group 1: 10 mW/cm² daily exposure for the first 7 days of pregnancy group 2: 10 mW/cm² daily exposure from day 8 to day 18 of pregnancy group 3: 10 mW/cm² daily exposure for the whole period of pregnancy (18 days) group 4: 40 mW/cm² daily exposure for the first 7 days of pregnancy group 5: 40 mW/cm² daily exposure from day 8 to day 18 of pregnancy group 6: 40 mW/cm² daily exposure for the whole period of pregnancy group 7: control for exposure 3: group 1: 10 mW/cm² for the whole period of pregnancy group 2: 40 mW/cm² for the whole period of pregnancy group 3: control

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
Type
Exposure duration 2 h/day for 4 days
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 4 mW/g minimum calculated whole body for exposure with 10 mW/cm²
SAR 5 mW/g maximum calculated whole body for exposure with 10 mW/cm²
SAR 16 mW/g minimum calculated whole body for exposure with 40 mW/cm²
SAR 18 mW/g maximum calculated whole body for exposure with 40 mW/cm²
power density 10 mW/cm² - measured - group 1
power density 40 mW/cm² - measured - group 2

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
Type
Exposure duration 2 h/day for 7 days or 10 days or 18 days
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 4 mW/g minimum calculated whole body for exposure with 10 mW/cm²
SAR 5 mW/g maximum calculated whole body for exposure with 10 mW/cm²
SAR 16 mW/g minimum calculated whole body for exposure with 40 mW/cm²
SAR 18 mW/g maximum calculated whole body for exposure with 40 mW/cm²
power density 10 mW/cm² - measured - group 1 to group 3
power density 40 mW/cm² - measured - group 4 to group 6

Exposure 3

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
Type
Exposure duration 2 h/day for 18 days
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 4 mW/g minimum calculated whole body for exposure with 10 mW/cm²
SAR 5 mW/g maximum calculated whole body for exposure with 10 mW/cm²
SAR 16 mW/g minimum calculated whole body for exposure with 40 mW/cm²
SAR 18 mW/g maximum calculated whole body for exposure with 40 mW/cm²
power density 10 mW/cm² - measured - group 1
power density 40 mW/cm² - measured - group 2

Reference articles

  • Szmigielski S et al. (1982): Accelerated development of spontaneous and benzopyrene-induced skin cancer in mice exposed to 2450-MHz microwave radiation.

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Thermal exposures to microwaves at 40 mW/cm2 power flux inhibited significantly the embryonal and fetal development in utero, accompanied by an increased incidence of intra-fetal bleedings, deaths and resorptions of fetuses. Moreover, markedly increased liability to viral and bacterial infections was observed in pups of dams irradiated for the whole period of gestation with thermal doses of microwaves. No such effects were found following exposure of pregnant mice to 10 mW/cm2 power density of irradiation.
These data suggest that the observed effects of microwave exposure in the course of pregnancy in mice are thermal in nature.

Study character:

Study funded by

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