Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Changes in cellular proteins due to environmental non-ionizing radiation. I. Heat-shock proteins. med./bio.

Published in: Electro Magnetobiol 2001; 20 (2): 141-152

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the effect of weak microwave fields on the amounts of heat-shock proteins in cell cultures at various temperatures (35, 37, and 40°C). To study the effect of heating only, the cells were placed in the field-free exposure incubator and were heated to the same and also to higher temperatures up to 42°C.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 960 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 20 min

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 960 MHz
  • guided field
Exposure duration continuous for 20 min
Modulation type pulsed
Duty cycle 12 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
Additional info

simulated GSM

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber A TEM cell of 320 mm length and 160 mm TEM region was located in an incubator maintained at 35, 37, and 40 ± 0.1°C.
Setup A Petri dish containing 4 glass cover slips with cell cultures was placed in the TEM cell. A control dish was placed outside the TEM cell at a distance of 20 cm from the exposed dish.
Additional info Sham experiments were made with the TEM cell not powered. Effects of heating only (up to 42°C) were studied by placing the coverslips in a field-free incubator.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 17 mV/cm peak value calculated - -
SAR 2.1 mW/kg unspecified calculated - -

Reference articles

  • Kwee S et al. (1998): Changes in cell proliferation due to environmental non-ionizing radiation 2. Microwave radiation.

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

At both 35 and 37°C, higher amounts of Hsp-70 were found in the exposed cells as compared with the sham-exposed cells. The effects can be considered to be athermal. In the heat control experiments the cells had to be heated up to 3-5°C higher, or for much longer time, to get the same maximum responses as were induced by the microwave irradiation. There was no significant response in the case of Hsp-27.

Study character:

Study funded by

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