Mice in MW-transparent rodent restrainers were placed in the horizontal plane below the septum on a support of dielectric material with their longitudinal axis parallel to the main axis of the GTEM cell, in a location where matching conditions were optimized.
The electric field pattern was measured using a triaxial probe, connected via an optical cable to a field meter having an overall calibration uncertainty of ±1.5 dB. A bidirectional coupler and a bichannel power meter were used to monitor direct and reflected powers. The whole-body and specific tissueSARs were calculated by numerical dosimetry, using the FDTD method and a 20-g mouse voxel model obtained by spiral Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT) scan, where 11 kinds of tissue were recognized and dielectric properties assigned according to Gabriel and Gabriel . Exposure to a plane wave with propagation along the longitudinal axis of the animal and the E-fieldvertical was simulated, and results were validated by temperature rise measurements (CW at 7 W) performed on a homogeneous cylindrical 20-g phantom (with a cone tip) placed in the position of the mouse. The overall uncertainty on SAR results did not exceed ±30%. Gabriel C, Gabriel S. 1996. Compilation of the dielectric properties of body tissues at RF and microwavefrequencies. London, UK: Physics Department, King's College. http://niremf.ifac.cnr.it/docs/DIELECTRIC/Report.html
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The number of genes changing expression after chronic exposure to Code Division Multiple Access or Frequency DMA radiofrequency radiation does not exceed the false-positive rate.
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Effects of global system for mobile communications 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on gene and protein expression in MCF-7 cells.
Nylund R et al.
Mobile phone radiation causes changes in gene and protein expression in human endothelial cell lines and the response seems to be genome- and proteome-dependent.
Qutob SS et al.
Microarray gene expression profiling of a human glioblastoma cell line exposed in vitro to a 1.9 GHz pulse-modulated radiofrequency field.
Whitehead TD et al.
Gene expression does not change significantly in C3H 10T(1/2) cells after exposure to 847.74 CDMA or 835.62 FDMA radiofrequency radiation.
Chauhan V et al.
Gene Expression Analysis of a Human Lymphoblastoma Cell Line Exposed In Vitro to an Intermittent 1.9 GHz Pulse-Modulated Radiofrequency Field.
Belyaev IY et al.
Exposure of rat brain to 915 MHz GSM microwaves induces changes in gene expression but not double stranded DNA breaks or effects on chromatin conformation.
Simko M et al.
Hsp70 expression and free radical release after exposure to non-thermal radio-frequency electromagnetic fields and ultrafine particles in human Mono Mac 6 cells.
Nikolova T et al.
Electromagnetic fields affect transcript levels of apoptosis-related genes in embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells.
Miyakoshi J et al.
Effects of exposure to a 1950 MHz radio frequency field on expression of Hsp70 and Hsp27 in human glioma cells.
Lim HB et al.
Effect of 900 MHz electromagnetic fields on nonthermal induction of heat-shock proteins in human leukocytes.
Capri M et al.
1800 MHz radiofrequency (mobile phones, different Global System for Mobile communication modulations) does not affect apoptosis and heat shock protein 70 level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from young and old donors.
Czyz J et al.
High frequency electromagnetic fields (GSM signals) affect gene expression levels in tumor suppressor p53-deficient embryonic stem cells.
Pacini S et al.
Exposure to global system for mobile communication (GSM) cellular phone radiofrequency alters gene expression, proliferation, and morphology of human skin fibroblasts.
Kwee S et al.
Changes in cellular proteins due to environmental non-ionizing radiation. I. Heat-shock proteins.
Harvey C et al.
Effects on protein kinase C and gene expression in a human mast cell line, HMC-1, following microwave exposure.