Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Effects of GSM-modulated radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on B-cell peripheral differentiation and antibody production. med./bio.

Published in: Radiat Res 2006; 165 (6): 664-670

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the effects of in vivo exposure to a GSM-modulated 900 MHz radiofrequency field on B cell peripheral differentiation and antibody production in mice.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: repeated daily exposure, 2 h/day, 5 days/week, for 4 weeks

General information

A detailed description of the exposure system and the dosimetry assessment has been published in [Ardoino et al., 2005].

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
  • guided field
Exposure duration repeated daily exposure, 2 h/day, 5 days/week, for 4 weeks
Modulation type pulsed
Additional info

GSM basic modulation

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber Two non-standard TEM cells (12 x 12 x 120 cm) were designed according to electromagnetic restraints and optimization of the uniform field volume [Van Hese et al., 1992]. They had a grid wall for air circulation. A water cooling system with two external metal jackets filled with circulating water fed from a thermostatic bath was placed in contact with the bottom walls of the TEM cell.
Setup Mice restrained in ventilated transparent cylindrical Perspex jigs were positioned with their caudal axis parallel to the direction of the field propagation. The jigs were placed under and over the septum and kept at the same distance by polystyrene supports.
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info Eight mice at a time were placed in a TEM cell with daily clockwise rotation of their location to increase the homogeneity of exposure. The people preparing the biological samples and performing the biological tests did not know which TEM cell was activated. Control mice were maintained in the animal facility with minimal handling.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 2 W/kg mean measured and calculated whole body -

Reference articles

  • Ardoino L et al. (2005): A radio-frequency system for in vivo pilot experiments aimed at the studies on biological effects of electromagnetic fields.
  • Pioli C et al. (2000): Inhibition of IgG1 and IgE production by stimulation of the B cell CTLA-4 receptor.
  • van Hese J et al. (1992): Simulation of the effect of inhomogeneities in TEM transmission cells using the FDTD method

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Under the experimental conditions used, the data showed no effect of in vivo exposure to GSM modulated radiofrequency fields on B cell peripheral differentiation or on antibody production in response to both polyclonal activators and antigens. This indicates that it is unlikely that radiofrequency field exposure alters immune response to infections or vaccination.

Study character:

Study funded by

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