Astroglial (astrocytes) and microglial cells, two types of glial cells in the brain are interesting in the context of biological effects from microwave exposure.
The release of the two pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was investigated. Levels of the astroglial cell-specific reactive marker glial fibrillary acidic protein and the microglial reactivity marker ED-1 (a macrophage activation antigen) were also measured.
Positive controls were performed in increased temperatures.
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 4, 8, and 24 h
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous for 4 or 24 h
|Exposure duration||continuous for 4, 8, and 24 h|
|Chamber||short-circuited aluminium waveguide cavity with adjustable end plate operating in TE103 mode|
|Setup||Cells in seven 35-mm Petri dishes were positioned in a ring which was placed in a Plexiglas box located inside the cavity. An extra center dish containing medium but no cells was added to obtain a more homogeneous SAR distribution. Petri dishes were located in the H-field maximum of the standing wave.|
|Sham exposure||A sham exposure was conducted.|
|Additional info||The temperature in the cell culture dishes was maintained at 37 ± 0.2°C by thermostat-controlled cooling water flowing between two glass plates below the dishes. To prevent evaporation of the culture medium, the bottom of the tissue dish holder was filled with a thin layer of deionised water with tensides added which was found not to affect the characteristics of the chamber and also improved the thermal contact between the dishes and the bottom glass plate of the cooling system.|
|Exposure duration||continuous for 4 or 24 h|
No significant differences could be found for any of the parameters studied at any time and for any of the exposure characteristics. Thus the data do not provide evidence for any effect of the microwave irradiation used on damage-related factors in glial cells in vitro.