Differential Pro-Inflammatory Responses of Astrocytes and Microglia Involve STAT3 Activation in Response to 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Fields.
PLoS One 2014; 9 (9): e108318
Aim of study (acc. to author)
for 1, 3, 6, 12, or 24 hours (5 min on and 10 min off)
extended view →
intermittent for 1, 3, 6, 12, or 24 hours (5 min on and 10 min off)
cells were cultured in 35 mm plastic Petri dishes
system consisted of two resonating
waveguides; in each waveguide chamber, a Petri dish holder for six dishes ensured that each dish was positioned accurately in the H-field maximum of the standing wave; two ventilation holes were located on the waveguide, a ventilator fan was fixed to one hole to cool the culture medium; waveguides were placed in an incubator to ensure constant environmental conditions (37 ± 0.2°C, 5% CO 2, 95% air atmosphere)
A sham exposure was conducted.
temperature rise due to
radiofrequency field was less than 0.05°C
measured and calculated
Schuderer J et al.
High Peak SAR Exposure Unit With Tight Exposure and Environmental Control for In Vitro Experiments at 1800 MHz
reduced view →
Time of investigation:
Main outcome of study (acc. to author)
Radiofrequency exposure induced
activation of both
types: After 12 and 24 hours
of CD11b in
increased compared to the corresponding
glial fibrillary acidic protein
increased after 24 hours
compared to the
as shown via
fields showed both
responses compared to the
: However, the
and release profiles of
tumor necrosis factor
inducible nitric oxide synthase
, and cyclooxygenase-2 differed between the two
of STAT 3 was only activated in
. Hence, an addition of the STAT3
"Stattic" attenuated the
but not in
The authors conclude that
fields induces differential
which could be mediated through different activation of STAT3 in each
Study funded by
National Basic Research Program of China
National Natural Science Foundation (NSFC), China
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