Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Expression of the immediate early gene, c-fos, in fetal brain after whole of gestation exposure of pregnant mice to global system for mobile communication microwaves med./bio.

Published in: Pathology 2006; 38 (4): 333-335

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study immediate early gene expression (c-fos) as a marker of neural stress after whole of gestation exposure of the fetal mouse brain to mobile phone-type radiofrequency fields.

Background/further details

10 pregnant mice were exposed and one fetal brain was selected from each pregnant female. Immediately prior to parturition on gestational day 19, fetal heads were collected.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: repeated daily exposure, 60 min/day from day 1 to day 19 of gestation
  • SAR: 4 W/kg average over mass (whole body)

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Exposure duration repeated daily exposure, 60 min/day from day 1 to day 19 of gestation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 0.6 ms
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Additional info

similar to GSM

Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup The exposure system consisted of a cylindrical parallel plate with mice restrained in clear Perspex tubes arranged radially around the antenna [Balzano et al., 2000; Faraone et al., 2006]. A forced air supply was maintained through the cylinders to prevent heat build-up, and there was no rise in core body temperature.
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info A non-exposed, freely moving, cage control group without handling was also included.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 4 W/kg average over mass - whole body -

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

No stress response was found in the fetal brain using c-fos immunohistochemistry after whole of gestation exposure to mobile phone.

Study character:

Study funded by

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