Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

A confirmation study of Russian and Ukrainian data on effects of 2450 MHz microwave exposure on immunological processes and teratology in rats med./bio.

Published in: Radiat Res 2009; 172 (5): 617-624

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To confirm previous data on effects of 2450 MHz microwave exposure on immunological processes and teratology in rats.

Background/further details

In a series of Russian and Ukrainian publications published from 1974-1986 (Vinogradov et al. 1974, Vinogradov et al. 1975, Shandala et al. 1983, Vinogradov et al. 1985, Vinogradov and Naumenko 1986, Shandala and Vinogradov 1982) it was reported that 30 day whole body exposure to radiofrequency irradiation (2375 MHz, 5 W/m², continuous wave) disrupted the antigenic structure of rat brain tissue. The authors suggested that this action caused an autoimmune response in exposed animals. Moreover, these studies reported that blood serum from irradiated rats injected into intact nonexposed female rats on the 10th day of pregnancy led to increased postimplantation embryo mortality and decreased fetus body weight and size.
Because the findings of these studies served in part as the basis for setting exposure limit values in the former USSR, it was deemed necessary to perform confirmation studies, using modern dosimetric and biological methods.
For immunological investigation blood of 48 rats (16 rats/group; sham exposure, exposure, cage control) was taken on days 7 (5 rats per group) and 14 (11 rats per group) after exposure.
For teratological experiments, blood sera of the 11 rats (14 days following exposure) were prepared. Sera from exposed and sham exposed rats were administered to two groups of female rats on the 10th day of pregnancy (20 rats/group). A third group of pregnant females received no treatment (control group).



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 2,450 MHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous for 7 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 30 days
  • SAR: 0.16 W/kg average over mass (whole body) (+/- 0.04 W/kg at 5 W/m²)
  • SAR: 0.16 W/kg average over mass (brain) (+/- 0.09 W/kg at 5 W/m²)
  • power density: 5 W/m² (at the cage location)
  • power density: 6.5 W/m² (in the center of the ring)

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 2,450 MHz
  • elliptical
Exposure duration continuous for 7 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 30 days
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 2 m
Setup 3 m x 3 m x 3 m anechoic chamber, inner walls coated with 30 cm thick carbon-loaded foam in a pyramidal shape, outer walls shielded with aluminum foil, antenna positioned at the ceiling and a ring with 16 compartments of 220 mm x 180 mm x 140 mm holding the rats placed on the absorbing floor
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 0.16 W/kg average over mass estimated whole body +/- 0.04 W/kg at 5 W/m²
SAR 0.16 W/kg average over mass estimated brain +/- 0.09 W/kg at 5 W/m²
power density 5 W/m² - measured - at the cage location
power density 6.5 W/m² - measured - in the center of the ring

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

All data, using ELISA and classic teratology endpoints, were negative. Under these exposure conditions (2450 MHz, CW, 7 h/day, 30 days, 0.16 W/kg whole body SAR), radiofrequency exposure had no influence on several immune and degenerative parameters or on prenatal development (this is in contrast to previous Soviet studies).

Study character:

Study funded by

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