Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Effects of 2.45 GHz CW microwave radiation on embryofetal development in mice. med./bio.

Published in: Teratology 1981; 24 (3): 303-314

Aim of study (acc. to author)

This study was conducted to examine the embryo and fetus development in 2.45 GHz irradiated mice.

Background/further details

Mice were exposed to electromagnetic field during the first 15 days of gestation. To distinguish between thermal and nonthermal effects of the power densities of 21 or 30 mW/cm2, groups of mice were also exposed to 30 and 31°C leading to comparable body temperature increase as due to radio frequency exposure. On day 18 of gestation, the dams were sacrificed and their reproductive status was determined.
Dead mice were exposed (see further exposure parameters "exposure 2") for specific absorption rate evaluation close to the uterus.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous 4h
initial experiment for the measurement of the rectal temperature
Exposure 2: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: not given in the article
determination of SAR
  • SAR: 3.9 mW/g minimum (whole body)
  • SAR: 40.2 mW/g minimum (whole body)
  • power density: 30 mW/cm²
Exposure 3: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: 2 times 4h/d for 15 days (days 1 - 15 of gestation)
exposure on days 1 - 15 of gestation
Exposure 4: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: 2 times 4h/d for 6 or 10 days (days 1 - 6 or 6 - 15 of gestation)
exposure on days 1 - 6 or 6 -15 of gestation
Exposure 5: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: 2 times 4h
single exposure
Exposure 6:
Exposure duration: no EMF-exposure
temperature exposure
-

General information

there were two sham exposure groups: one handled - moved between cages as the exposed animals nonhandled - not moved

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous 4h
Additional info initial experiment for the measurement of the rectal temperature
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup 2.5 m x 3.0 m x 2.5 m chamber lined with HYP-18 microwave absorber (-45 dB at 2.45 GHz); mice placed in 5 cm x 10 cm, 15 cm high Styrofoam cages on Styrofoam shelves inside the chamber; exposure from above through absorber-lined antenna
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 5 mW/cm² minimum measured - -
power density 21 mW/cm² - measured - -

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
Type
Exposure duration not given in the article
Additional info determination of SAR
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup dead mice used in streched, curled and sitting position
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 3.9 mW/g minimum calculated whole body -
SAR 40.2 mW/g minimum calculated whole body -
power density 30 mW/cm² - measured - -

Exposure 3

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
Type
Exposure duration 2 times 4h/d for 15 days (days 1 - 15 of gestation)
Additional info exposure on days 1 - 15 of gestation
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 5 mW/cm² - measured - -
SAR 6.7 mW/g - calculated whole body -

Exposure 4

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
Type
Exposure duration 2 times 4h/d for 6 or 10 days (days 1 - 6 or 6 - 15 of gestation)
Additional info exposure on days 1 - 6 or 6 -15 of gestation
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 21 mW/cm² - measured - -
SAR 28.14 mW/g - calculated whole body -

Exposure 5

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
Type
Exposure duration 2 times 4h
Additional info single exposure
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 30 mW/cm² - measured - -
SAR 40.2 mW/g - calculated whole body -

Exposure 6

Main characteristics
Frequency
Exposure duration no EMF-exposure
Additional info temperature exposure
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup temperature in chamber: 30° or 31°
Parameters

No parameters are specified for this exposure.

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The exposure to 2.45 GHz at power densities of 5 and 21 W/cm2 did not produce any adverse effects in dams or fetus.
At the exposure to a power density of 30 W/cm2 during days 1-6 of gestation a significant decrease in implantation sites per litter and average fetal weight was found. Exposure to 30 W/cm2 during days 6-15 resulted in slight increase in malformed fetuses.

Study character:

Study funded by

Related articles