研究のタイプ: 医学/生物学の研究 (experimental study)

[電磁界発生源に反応するバイオマーカとしてのショウジョウバエの卵形成] med./bio.

Drosophila oogenesis as a bio-marker responding to EMF sources.

掲載誌: Electromagn Biol Med 2014; 33 (3): 165-189

この研究は、様々な高周波電磁界発生源をそのままばく露装置としてショウジョウバエを入れたバイアルに近接させて置き、短時間ばく露を3-7日間行い、ショウジョウバエの卵形性への影響を調べた。実験に用いた発生源は、GSM 900/1800 MHz携帯電話、1880-1900 MHz DECTコードレス電話の親機、 同電話の子機、携帯電話コードレス電話子機との組合せ、2.44 GHz無線ネットワーク(Wi-Fi)、2.44 GHzブルートゥース、92.8 MHz FM発信器、27.15 MHzベビーモニタ、 900 MHz 連続波発信器、電子レンジの2.44GHzと磁界成分である。発生源とバイアルの距離、ばく露時間などを変化させて全部で280回の実験を行い、再現性も確認したと述べている。対照バイアルはファラデーケージ内に置いた。その結果、用いた全ての発生源が多産能力およびアポトーシス誘導有意な影響を与え、それはICNIRPガイドライン値を大きく下回る低レベル(ブルートゥースの0.3 V/m)においても見られた、と報告している。

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研究目的(著者による)

To investigate the effects of electromagnetic fields emitted from different sources on the reproduction of the fruit fly Drosophila spec..

詳細情報

In total, 280 experiments were conducted in which the exposure source, the distance between the source and fruit fly, and the duration were varied. Partially, different exposure sources were used simultaneously or consecutively (see "Field characteristics").
The experiment started with newly emerged flies in glass vials, males and females seperately, respectively. After three days, male and female flies were transferred into a common vial for mating. Exposure was performed with the start of the experiment (otherwise stated).
To assess the number of viable F1 pupae, parent flies were removed at the sixth day of exposure (or later if exposure lasted more than six days). The vials with the developing embryos were kept in a culture room to count the number of F1 pupae developed in every vial until day 22 of the experiment.
For detection of apoptosis in follicles, adult female flies were removed out of the vial five hours after the last exposure and anesthetized for removing the ovaries.

影響評価項目

ばく露

ばく露 パラメータ
ばく露1: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: 6 or 12 minutes daily for 1 (3rd day of experiment only), or 3 days (D. virilis) (follicles); 6 minutes daily for 7 days (D. virilis) (F1 pupae)
GSM mobile phone
  • 電界強度: 22 V/m mean (in a distance of 0 cm)
  • 電界強度: 2 V/m mean (in a distance of 10 cm)
  • 電界強度: 0.4 V/m mean (in a distance of 20 cm)
  • SAR: 1.2 W/kg (according to manufacturer)
ばく露2: 1,880–1,900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: 30 min daily for 5 days (D. melanogaster) or 9 days (D. virilis) (F1 pupae); 30 min daily for 5 days (D. melanogaster) or 45 min daily for 4 days (D. virilis) (follicles)
DECT base station
ばく露3: 1,880–1,900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: 30 min daily for 5 days (D. melanogaster) or 30 min daily for 9 days (D. virilis) (F1 pupae); 45 min daily for 4 days (D. virilis) (follicles)
DECT handset
ばく露4: 2,400–2,483 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: 30 min daily for 6 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae); 30 min daily for 6 days (D. melanogaster) (follicles)
bluetooth coupled with a GSM mobile phone during a call
  • 電界強度: 0.3 V/m mean (bluetooth device)
  • SAR: 1.2 W/kg (mobile phone, according to manufacturer)
ばく露5: 2,400–2,480 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: 60 min daily for 7 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae); 60 min daily for 7 days (D. melanogaster) or 20 min daily for 4 days (D. virilis) (follicles)
Wi-Fi
ばく露6: 92.8 MHz
Modulation type: FM
ばく露時間: 30 min daily for 4 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae); 30 min daily for 4 days (D. melanogaster) (follicles)
FM signal
ばく露7: 2,400–2,480 MHz
ばく露時間: 10 min daily for 6 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae); 10 min daily for 4 days (D. melanogaster) (follicles)
microwave oven
ばく露8: 900 MHz
Modulation type: CW
ばく露時間: 20 min daily for 5 days (D. virilis) (F1 pupae)
CW
ばく露9: 27.15 MHz
ばく露時間: 3 x 10 min with brakes of 10 min in between daily for 5 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae)
baby monitor
ばく露10: 1,800–1,900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: 30 minutes daily DECT base station + 30 minutes daily mobile phone for 6 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae); 30 minutes daily DECT base station + 30 minutes daily mobile phone for 4 days (D. melanogaster) (follicles)
DECT base station and GSM mobile phone (consecutively)
  • 電界強度: 22 V/m mean (mobile phone)
  • 電界強度: 2.7 V/m mean (DECT base station)
  • SAR: 1.2 W/kg (mobile phone, according to manufacturer)
ばく露11: 1,880–1,900 MHz
ばく露時間: 30 min daily for 9 days (D. virilis) (F1 pupae)
DECT base station and DECT handset (simultaneously)
ばく露12: 1,800–1,900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: 30 min daily DECT handset + 30 min daily mobile phone for 6 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae); 30 min daily DECT handset + 30 min daily mobile phone for 4 days (D. melanogaster) (follicles)
DECT handset and GSM mobile phone (consecutively)
  • 電界強度: 2 V/m mean (DECT-handset)
  • 電界強度: 22 V/m mean (mobile phone)
  • SAR: 1.2 W/kg (mobile phone, according to manufacturer)
ばく露13: 900–2,480 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: 30 min daily for 9 days (D. virilis) (F1 pupae); 30 min daily for 7 days (D. virilis) (follicles)
bluetooth and GSM mobile phone (simultaneously)
  • 電界強度: 0.3 V/m mean (bluetooth device)
  • 電界強度: 12 V/m mean (mobile phone)
  • SAR: 1.2 W/kg (mobile phone, according to manufacturer)
ばく露14: 900 MHz
Modulation type: CW
ばく露時間: 6 min daily for 4 days (D. virilis) (follicles)
CW and GSM mobile phone (simultaneously)

General information

exposure took place in cylindrical glass vials of 2.5 cm diameter and 10 cm height
control flies were sham exposed in a Faraday cage and placed away from any emitting source.for; radiofrequency EF intensity was monitored inside this cage and found to be well below the normal background values; B-field extremely low frequency intensity was below 0.1 µT

ばく露1

主たる特性
周波数 900 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 6 or 12 minutes daily for 1 (3rd day of experiment only), or 3 days (D. virilis) (follicles); 6 minutes daily for 7 days (D. virilis) (F1 pupae)
Additional information GSM mobile phone
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • セルラ-電話
ばく露装置の詳細 fruit flies were exposed in a distance of 0, 10 or 20 cm; voice simulation was performed via radio playing
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電界強度 22 V/m mean 測定値 - in a distance of 0 cm
電界強度 2 V/m mean 測定値 - in a distance of 10 cm
電界強度 0.4 V/m mean 測定値 - in a distance of 20 cm
SAR 1.2 W/kg - - - according to manufacturer

ばく露2

主たる特性
周波数 1,880–1,900 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 30 min daily for 5 days (D. melanogaster) or 9 days (D. virilis) (F1 pupae); 30 min daily for 5 days (D. melanogaster) or 45 min daily for 4 days (D. virilis) (follicles)
Additional information DECT base station
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 0.08 ms
Repetition frequency 100 Hz
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • DECT base station
ばく露装置の詳細 voice simulation was performed via radio playing
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電界強度 2.7 V/m mean 測定値 - -

ばく露3

主たる特性
周波数 1,880–1,900 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 30 min daily for 5 days (D. melanogaster) or 30 min daily for 9 days (D. virilis) (F1 pupae); 45 min daily for 4 days (D. virilis) (follicles)
Additional information DECT handset
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 0.38 ms
Repetition frequency 100 Hz
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • DECT handset
ばく露装置の詳細 voice simulation was performed via radio playing
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電界強度 2 V/m mean 測定値 - -
電界強度 8 V/m maximum 測定値 - -

ばく露4

主たる特性
周波数 2,400–2,483 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 30 min daily for 6 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae); 30 min daily for 6 days (D. melanogaster) (follicles)
Additional information bluetooth coupled with a GSM mobile phone during a call
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 400 ms
Repetition frequency 133.3 Hz
Additional information

bluetooth: pulse width 0.4 s; pulse repetition rate 133.3 Hz GSM mobile phone: pulse repetition rate 217 Hz

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • セルラ-電話
  • bluetooth device coupled with a mobile phone
ばく露装置の詳細 vials were put roundly close to the bluetooth device, which was coupled with a mobile phone during a call (no voice simulation necessary)
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電界強度 0.3 V/m mean 測定値 - bluetooth device
SAR 1.2 W/kg - - - mobile phone, according to manufacturer

ばく露5

主たる特性
周波数 2,400–2,480 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 60 min daily for 7 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae); 60 min daily for 7 days (D. melanogaster) or 20 min daily for 4 days (D. virilis) (follicles)
Additional information Wi-Fi
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 1 ms
Repetition frequency 10 Hz
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • Wi-Fi router
ばく露装置の詳細 vials were placed on top of the wireless router
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電界強度 2.1 V/m mean 測定値 - -

ばく露6

主たる特性
周波数 92.8 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 30 min daily for 4 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae); 30 min daily for 4 days (D. melanogaster) (follicles)
Additional information FM signal
Modulation
Modulation type FM
Modulation frequency 20 kHz
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • FM transmitter
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電界強度 13 V/m mean 測定値 - -

ばく露7

主たる特性
周波数 2,400–2,480 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 10 min daily for 6 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae); 10 min daily for 4 days (D. melanogaster) (follicles)
Additional information microwave oven
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • microwave oven or microwave oven in a Faraday cage
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 15 cm
ばく露装置の詳細 glass vials with flies were 15 cm away from the oven; microwave oven under normal operating conditions (no food inside); voice simulation was performed via radio playing; for some experiments, the microwave oven was put in a Faraday cage which resulted in a reduced electrical field
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電界強度 10 V/m mean 測定値 - during normal operation
磁束密度 10 µT - - - 50 Hz magnetic field from power supply
電界強度 3 V/m mean 測定値 - microwave oven within a Faraday cage

ばく露8

主たる特性
周波数 900 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • near field
ばく露時間 20 min daily for 5 days (D. virilis) (F1 pupae)
Additional information CW
Modulation
Modulation type CW
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • RF generator
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電界強度 20 V/m mean 測定値 - -

ばく露9

主たる特性
周波数 27.15 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 3 x 10 min with brakes of 10 min in between daily for 5 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae)
Additional information baby monitor
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • baby monitor
ばく露装置の詳細 antenna placed between the vials; voice simulation was performed via radio playing
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電界強度 20 V/m mean 測定値 - -

ばく露10

主たる特性
周波数 1,800–1,900 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 30 minutes daily DECT base station + 30 minutes daily mobile phone for 6 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae); 30 minutes daily DECT base station + 30 minutes daily mobile phone for 4 days (D. melanogaster) (follicles)
Additional information DECT base station and GSM mobile phone (consecutively)
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 0.08 ms
Repetition frequency 100 Hz
Additional information

DECT base station: pulse width 0.08 ms; pulse repetition rate 100 Hz GSM mobile phone: pulse repetition rate 217 Hz

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • セルラ-電話
  • DECT base station
ばく露装置の詳細 voice simulation was performed via radio playing
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電界強度 22 V/m mean 測定値 - mobile phone
電界強度 2.7 V/m mean 測定値 - DECT base station
SAR 1.2 W/kg - - - mobile phone, according to manufacturer

ばく露11

主たる特性
周波数 1,880–1,900 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 30 min daily for 9 days (D. virilis) (F1 pupae)
Additional information DECT base station and DECT handset (simultaneously)
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • DECT base station and DECT handset
ばく露装置の詳細 voice simulation was performed via radio playing
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電界強度 2 V/m mean 測定値 - DECT handset
電界強度 2.7 V/m mean 測定値 - DECT base station

ばく露12

主たる特性
周波数 1,800–1,900 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 30 min daily DECT handset + 30 min daily mobile phone for 6 days (D. melanogaster) (F1 pupae); 30 min daily DECT handset + 30 min daily mobile phone for 4 days (D. melanogaster) (follicles)
Additional information DECT handset and GSM mobile phone (consecutively)
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 100 Hz
Additional information

GSM mobile phone: pulse repetition rate 217 Hz DECT handset: pulse repetition rate 100 Hz

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • セルラ-電話
  • DECT handset
ばく露装置の詳細 voice simulation was performed via radio playing
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電界強度 2 V/m mean 測定値 - DECT-handset
電界強度 22 V/m mean 測定値 - mobile phone
SAR 1.2 W/kg - - - mobile phone, according to manufacturer

ばく露13

主たる特性
周波数 900–2,480 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 30 min daily for 9 days (D. virilis) (F1 pupae); 30 min daily for 7 days (D. virilis) (follicles)
Additional information bluetooth and GSM mobile phone (simultaneously)
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Pulse width 400 ms
Repetition frequency 133.3 Hz
Additional information

GSM mobile phone: pulse repetition rate 217 Hz bluetooth: pulse width 0.4 s; pulse repetition rate 133.3 Hz

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • セルラ-電話
  • bluetooth device
ばく露装置の詳細 voice simulation was performed via radio playing
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電界強度 0.3 V/m mean 測定値 - bluetooth device
電界強度 12 V/m mean 測定値 - mobile phone
SAR 1.2 W/kg - - - mobile phone, according to manufacturer

ばく露14

主たる特性
周波数 900 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
ばく露時間 6 min daily for 4 days (D. virilis) (follicles)
Additional information CW and GSM mobile phone (simultaneously)
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Additional information

GSM mobile phone: pulse repetition rate 217 Hz

ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • セルラ-電話
  • RF generator
ばく露装置の詳細 voice simulation was performed via radio playing
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電界強度 20 V/m mean 測定値 - CW
電界強度 22 V/m mean 測定値 - mobile phone
SAR 1.2 W/kg - - - mobile phone, according to manufacturer

ばく露を受けた生物:

方法 影響評価項目/測定パラメータ/方法

研究対象とした生物試料:
研究対象とした臓器系:
調査の時期:
  • ばく露後

研究の主なアウトカム(著者による)

In fruit flies exposed to an electromagnetic field (all sources), significant more apoptotic follicles were found in comparison to the unexposed control. Additionally, the number of viable F1 pupae was significantly decreased after exposure to the diverse electromagnetic field sources when compared to the control group. However, no cumulative effect was found when exposure duration was increased or different exposure sources were used one after the other.
The authors conclude that electromagnetic fields emitted from different sources could impair the reproduction of the fruit fly Drosophila spec..

研究の種別:

研究助成

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