Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Lethal and teratogenic effects of long-term low-intensity radio frequency radiation at 428 MHz on developing chick embryo med./bio.

Published in: Teratology 1991; 43 (6): 609-614

Aim of study (acc. to author)

This in vivo study was performed to investigate possible lethal and/or teratogenic effects of athermal low-dose radio frequency exposure on chicken embryos.

Background/further details

In total, 50 fertilized eggs were used in the radio frequency irradiation group and 19 eggs in the control group. Chicks were evaluated up to 30 days after hatching.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 428 MHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous during incubation for more than 20 days
  • power density: 5.5 mW/cm² (theoretical value)
  • SAR: 3.1 mW/kg minimum (whole body) (3.1-47.1 mW/kg)
  • SAR: 47.1 mW/kg maximum (whole body)

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 428 MHz
Exposure duration continuous during incubation for more than 20 days
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
  • crystal oscillator
Chamber eggs incubated and exposed in an incubator at 37 ± 0.5°C and 80% humidity ; they were automatically turned every hour
Setup eggs placed on a wooden rack positioned between two parallel aluminum plate electrodes of 34 x 36 cm that were 14 cm apart; their long axis parallel to the electric field
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 5.5 mW/cm² - calculated - theoretical value
SAR 3.1 mW/kg minimum calculated whole body 3.1-47.1 mW/kg
SAR 47.1 mW/kg maximum calculated whole body -

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Hatchability was observed in 84% of the control group and in 38% of the radio frequency exposed eggs. Almost one fourth of dead embryos in the radio frequency group occured within 10 days after incubation and the rest was due to death within the eggshell following inability to hatch. The severest effect was seen in egg positions where the specific absorption rate was relatively low (4.7-8.6 mW/kg).
A functional abnormality consisting of creeping movement and inability to stand was found in 89% of exposed embryos, but not in the control group.

Study character:

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