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Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Study of potential health effects of electromagnetic fields of telephony and Wi-Fi, using chicken embryo development as animal model.

Published in: Bioelectromagnetics 2017; 38 (3): 186-203

Aim of study (acc. to author)

The effects of exposure of chicken embryos to various electromagnetic fields of 1.8 - 5.6 GHz on the development should be investigated.
Background/further details: Fertile chicken eggs were divided into the following groups (n=450 each): 1) exposure to a 1.8 GHz electromagnetic field (GSM), 2) exposure to a 1.88 GHz electromagnetic field (DECT), 3) exposure to a 2.1 GHz electromagnetic field (UMTS), 4) exposure to a 5.6 GHz electromagnetic field (WLAN), 5) control group (n=900). Chicks hatched on day 22.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 1.8 GHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: 22 days
GSM
Exposure 2: 1.88 GHz
Exposure duration: 22 days
Exposure 3: 2.1 GHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: 22 days
Exposure 4: 5.6 GHz
Exposure duration: 22 days
Exposure 1
Main characteristics
Frequency 1.8 GHz
Type
Charakteristic
Exposure duration 22 days
Additional info GSM
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Additional info TDMA/FDMA
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 1.6 m
Chamber climate-controlled room
Setup three stainless steel shielding cabinets (2.32 x 1.17 x 1.1 m3) were placed next to each other (approximately 70 cm apart); cabinets were ventilated and fitted with three identical egg turning mechanisms constructed from non-metal materials (wood and plastics); the antenna was connected to a signal generator and was positioned at approximately 1.6m above the eggs; shielding efficiency of the cabinet was 90 dB for all frequencies when the door was open (worst case) and higher when the door was shut (normal case during exposure); egg surface temperature was maintained at 37.8°C; field inhomogeneity between the edges of the exposure chamber and the inner space were considered in experimental methods and statistics
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 3 V/m - estimated - -
SAR 0.38 mW/kg average over time calculated - for one egg
Exposure 2
Main characteristics
Frequency 1.88 GHz
Type
Charakteristic
Exposure duration 22 days
Additional info DECT
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 1.6 m
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 3 V/m - estimated - -
SAR 0.41 mW/kg average over time calculated - for one egg
Exposure 3
Main characteristics
Frequency 2.1 GHz
Type
Charakteristic
Exposure duration 22 days
Additional info UMTS
Modulation
Modulation type CW
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Additional info QPSK
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 1.6 m
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 3 V/m - estimated - -
SAR 0.45 mW/kg average over time calculated - for one egg
Exposure 4
Main characteristics
Frequency 5.6 GHz
Type
Charakteristic
Exposure duration 22 days
Additional info WLAN
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 1.6 m
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
electric field strength 3 V/m - estimated - -
SAR 0.38 mW/kg average over time calculated - for one egg
Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated material:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • before exposure
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Overall, no significant differences were found between the exposure groups and the control group.
The authors conclude that there are no strong indications for effects of exposure of chicken embryos to various electromagnetic fields of 1.8 - 5.6 GHz on the development.
Study character:

Study funded by

  • ZonMw, The Netherlands

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  • Tsybulin O et al. (2012): GSM 900 MHz microwave radiation affects embryo development of Japanese quails.
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