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Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) generates alterations in the synthesis and secretion of oestradiol-17β (E2) in uterine tissues: An in vitro study.

Published in: Theriogenology 2018; 110: 86-95

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To examine the effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields on the estradiol secretion and synthesis in porcine uterine tissue.
Background/further details: Estradiol is a crucial factor involved in the regulation of the uterine activity and consequently important for fertility. Therefore, tissue from the endometrium and the myometrium was harvested from four sows during the mid-luteal cycle and placed in 24-well plates.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 50 Hz
Exposure duration: 2 or 4 hours
Exposure 2: 120 Hz
Exposure duration: 2 or 4 hours
General information
The frequency of 50 Hz was used because this is frequency is ubiquitous in Europe. The frequency of 120 Hz was found to effect cell cycle progression and cell viability and is also used in therapeutic applications. The magnetic flux density of 8 mT was used because this is a typical value occurring in industry and therapeutic equipment due to the authors.
Exposure 1
Main characteristics
Frequency 50 Hz
Type
Waveform
Exposure duration 2 or 4 hours
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber tissue samples were exposed in a 24-well plate
Setup well plates were placed in the magnetic field generator; temperature was continuously monitored and did not change during the experiment (37°C); gas composition was supplied to the incubation system and was constant during the experiment
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info non-exposed tissue samples were incubated at the same time as the exposed ones
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 8 mT - - - -
Exposure 2
Main characteristics
Frequency 120 Hz
Type
Waveform
Exposure duration 2 or 4 hours
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 8 mT - - - -
Reference articles
  • Koziorowska A et al. (2016): The impact of electromagnetic field at a frequency of 50 Hz and a magnetic induction of 2.5 mT on viability of pineal cells in vitro.
Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated material:
  • isolated bio./chem. substance
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

After 2 and 4 hours exposure to the 50 Hz magnetic field, the secretion of estradiol from endometrium tissue samples into the culture medium was significantly increased compared to the sham exposure. In contrast, after 2 hours exposure to the 120 Hz magnetic field, the estradiol level was significantly decreased when compared to the sham exposed tissue samples. In myometrium tissue samples, the secretion of estradiol into the culture medium was significantly increased after 4 hours exposure to the 50 Hz and to the 120 Hz magnetic field compared to the sham exposure. With progesterone added the only significant difference was an increase in 4 hours 120 Hz magnetic field exposed myometrium samples when compared to the sham exposed ones.
In the endometrium, the gene expression of CYP19A3 was significantly decreased after the 120 Hz magnetic field compared to the sham exposure while gene expression was significantly increased in the myometrium.
No significant difference was seen in the protein expression of P450 aromatase between exposed and sham exposed samples.
The authors conclude that extremely low frequency magnetic fields could influence the estradiol secretion and synthesis in porcine uterine tissue dependent on exposure duration and frequency and hypothesize that progesterone could potentially protect against these alterations.
Study character:

Study funded by

  • University of Warmia and Mazury, Poland
  • University of Rzeszow, Poland
  • Municipal Office of Kolbuszowa, Poland

Related articles

  • Ruan G et al. (2018): Power-frequency magnetic fields at 50 Hz do not affect fertility and development in rats and mice.
  • Dundar B et al. (2009): The effect of the prenatal and post-natal long-term exposure to 50 Hz electric field on growth, pubertal development and IGF-1 levels in female Wistar rats.
  • Aydin M et al. (2009): Evaluation of hormonal change, biochemical parameters, and histopathological status of uterus in rats exposed to 50-Hz electromagnetic field.
  • Shi Y et al. (2005): 50-Hz magnetic field (0.1-mT) alters c-fos mRNA expression of early post implantation mouse embryos and serum estradiol levels of gravid mice.