Home
Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Effects of power frequency alternating magnetic fields on reproduction and pre-natal development of mice.

Published in: J Toxicol Sci 2002; 27 (3): 131-138

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To evaluate the effects of exposure to a 50 Hz magnetic field on reproduction and prenatal development in mice.
Background/further details: Male mice were exposed to 1) a sham exposure, 2) a 0.5 mT magnetic field, and 3) a 5.0 mT magnetic field for nine weeks to cover at least one complete spermatogenic cycle (35 animals per group). The same number of female mice was exposed to the same exposure groups, but only for two weeks. Afterwards, male mice were mated with females of the same exposure group in a ratio 1:1. Female mice were further exposed. On pregnancy day 18, a cesarean section was performed and embryos were examined (n=28/32/34 dams in groups 1/2/3). In non-pregnant females, uteri were also taken and examined.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 50 Hz
Exposure duration: males: continuously for at least 9 weeks; females: continuously for at least 32 days (expect for ca. 1 hour per day for caretaking)
Exposure 2: 50 Hz
Exposure duration: males: continuously for at least 9 weeks; females: continuously for at least 32 days (expect for ca. 1 hour per day for caretaking)
Exposure 1
Main characteristics
Frequency 50 Hz
Type
Waveform
Exposure duration males: continuously for at least 9 weeks; females: continuously for at least 32 days (expect for ca. 1 hour per day for caretaking)
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup no information given
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info background magnetic field for sham exposure was 0.1-1 µT
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 0.5 mT effective value - - -
Exposure 2
Main characteristics
Frequency 50 Hz
Type
Waveform
Exposure duration males: continuously for at least 9 weeks; females: continuously for at least 32 days (expect for ca. 1 hour per day for caretaking)
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 5 mT effective value - - -
Reference articles
Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated material:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The body weight of male mice of group 2 (0.5 mT) was significantly lower on days 21 and 28 of exposure compared to the sham exposure group. However, this effect was only transient.
No other significant effects between the exposure groups and the sham exposure group were observed.
The authors conclude that exposure of mice to a 50 Hz magnetic field has no major effect on reproduction and prenatal development.
Study character:

Study funded by

  • not stated/no funding

Related articles

  • Bayat PD et al. (2012): Effects of prenatal exposure to extremely low electro - magnetic field on in vivo derived blastocysts of mice.
  • Bayat PD et al. (2011): Effect of exposure to extremely low electro-magnetic field during prenatal period on mice spleen.
  • Borhani N et al. (2011): Analysis of DNA fragmentation in mouse embryos exposed to an extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field.
  • Okudan B et al. (2006): DEXA analysis on the bones of rats exposed in utero and neonatally to static and 50 Hz electric fields.
  • Shi Y et al. (2005): 50-Hz magnetic field (0.1-mT) alters c-fos mRNA expression of early post implantation mouse embryos and serum estradiol levels of gravid mice.
  • Chung MK et al. (2004): Lack of adverse effects in pregnant/lactating female rats and their offspring following pre- and postnatal exposure to ELF magnetic fields.
  • Chung MK et al. (2003): Developmental toxicity evaluation of ELF magnetic fields in Sprague-Dawley rats.
  • Negishi T et al. (2002): Studies of 50 Hz circularly polarized magnetic fields of up to 350 microT on reproduction and embryo-fetal development in rats: exposure during organogenesis or during preimplantation.
  • Huuskonen H et al. (1998): Effects of low-frequency magnetic fields on fetal development in CBA/Ca mice.
  • Ryan BM et al. (1996): Developmental toxicity study of 60 Hz (power frequency) magnetic fields in rats.