The samples were placed inside a 13-mm diameter soda glass, round bottomed test tube with a Teflon bottom. The tube was held vertically and covered from the top with a Teflon cover. A Teflon container enclosed the sample to minimize the heat loss to the surrounding.
The electric field was created between two conductors in coaxial arrangement with the outer conductor on the wall of the tube.
Another identical sample was placed in a special thermostated place and exposed to the same temperature rise as that resulting from the microwave radiation.
The output power was monitored with a power meter connected to a waveguide directional coupler situated between the magnetron and the antenna. SAR was determined in a separate experiment by exposing the test solution (1 ml of the PBS buffer) in the sample container for about 5 h and recording the temperature of the sample as a function of time [Saalman et al., 1991].
Saalman E et al.
Effect of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on permeability of unilamellar liposomes to 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein. Evidence of non-thermal leakage.