Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (UMTS) on reproduction and development of mice: a multi-generation study med./bio.

Published in: Radiat Res 2009; 171 (1): 89-95

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To investigate whether chronic exposure to UMTS at various SAR-values affects the fertility and development of mice over four generations.

Background/further details

The first generation (F0) consisted of 128 male and 256 female mice. After 21 days or when a second litter was born, the pups were separated from the adults. After the pups of the second litters were weaned, the parental animals were killed. The males and females from both litters were placed seperately in cages until an age of 90 to 110 days when again males and females were placed in one cage. This procedure was repeated until shortly before the birth of the pups of the F3 parental animals.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 2 GHz
Exposure duration: continuous for 570 days with a 30 min break each night

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 2 GHz
Exposure duration continuous for 570 days with a 30 min break each night
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup radial waveguide with an inner plate distance of 17 cm and a diameter of 2 cm
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 1.35 W/m² minimum measured - -
power density 6.8 W/m² - measured - -
power density 22 W/m² maximum measured - -
SAR 0.08 W/kg average over mass calculated whole body 0.08 W/kg - 0.144 W/kg at 1.35 W/m² Power density
SAR 0.4 W/kg average over mass calculated whole body 0.4 W/kg - 0.72 W/kg at 6.8 W/m² Power density
SAR 1.3 W/kg average over mass calculated whole body 1.3 W/kg - 2.34 W/kg at 22 W/m² Power density

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The results did not show harmful effects of exposure on the fertility and the development of the animals. The number and the development of pups were not affected by exposure. There are some indications for effects of exposure on food consumption. The effects were up to -25% compared to the sham exposure group.
The results do not indicate harmful effects of longterm exposure of mice to UMTS over several generations. The explanation for the lowered food consumption could be metabolic effects: absorbed radiofrequency electromagnetic field energy might be used by the animals in a way that reduces the metabolism of food for heating.

Study character:

Study funded by

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