Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Effects of the ELF-MFs on the development of spleens of preincubated chicken embryos. med./bio.

Published in: Electromagn Biol Med 2013; 32 (3): 301-314

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To investigate the effects of exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields on the histology of spleens of chicken embryos.

Background/further details

90 fertilized eggs were divided into six groups (n=15 per group): 1.) control group, 2.) sham exposure, 3.) magnetic field exposure at 1.33 mT, 4.) magnetic field exposure at 2.66 mT, 5.) magnetic field exposure at 5.52 mT and 6.) magnetic field exposure at 7.32 mT. Eggs were exposed or sham exposed for 24 hours. Afterwards, they were incubated for 19 days in the same incubator. At the end of the incubation period, eggs were opened and embryos were analyzed.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 50 Hz
Exposure duration: continuous for 24 hours
Exposure 2: 50 Hz
Exposure duration: continuous for 24 hours
Exposure 3: 50 Hz
Exposure duration: continuous for 24 hours
Exposure 4: 50 Hz
Exposure duration: continuous for 24 hours

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 50 Hz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 24 hours
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup coil (length 42 cm, diameter in the inside 19.6 cm, diameter in the outside 11.5 cm) was made of 980 turns of 2.5 mm diameter enameled copperwires; coil chamber was air conditioned; temperature in incubator 37°C; humidity in incubator 60 %; 5 eggs were placed horizontally in the coil in east-west direction; magnetic flow was parallel to the long axis of the embryo's body and perpendicular to the long axis of the eggs
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 1.33 mT - measured and calculated - -

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 50 Hz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 24 hours
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 2.66 mT - measured and calculated - -

Exposure 3

Main characteristics
Frequency 50 Hz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 24 hours
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 5.52 mT - measured and calculated - -

Exposure 4

Main characteristics
Frequency 50 Hz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 24 hours
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 7.32 mT - measured and calculated - -

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

In the exposed groups (2.66 mT, 5.52 mT, 7,23 mT), the mean length and width of the spleen was significantly decreased compared to the control group and the sham exposure group. While embryos from the control group and the sham exposure group appeared normal, in the exposure groups increased blood flow, damages in the spleen parenchyma, decreases in the number of splenic nodules, increases in the number of granulocytes and sinusoidal spaces of spleens were found.
Electron microscopy revealed deformed nuclei and swollen mitochondria in the exposure group in comparison to the control and the sham exposure group. The number of apoptotic cells was significantly increased in the exposure group compared to the control and the sham exposure. In all exposure groups, the enzyme activity of the alkaline phosphatase was significantly enhanced compared to the control and the sham exposure. Furthermore, the enzyme activity increased with higher magnetic flux densities.
The authors conclude that exposure to the extremely low frequency magnetic field could affect the normal development of the spleen in a chicken embryo.

Study character:

Study funded by

Related articles