Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Light and electron microscope studies of effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields on preincubated chick embryo med./bio.

Published in: Electromagn Biol Med 2007; 26 (2): 83-98

Aim of study (acc. to author)

This in vivo study was performed to investigate 1) the effects of low frequency electromagnetic fields on brain and eye development of chicken embroys and 2) the most effective field strengths.

Background/further details

500 fertilized eggs (55-65 g) were divided into exposure groups, control groups, and sham exposure groups. 15 different magnetic flux densities (from 1.33 to 7.32 mT) were applied in the exposure groups.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 50 Hz
Exposure duration: 24 h continuous

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 50 Hz
Exposure duration 24 h continuous
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup 42 cm long cylindrical coil with an inner diameter of 9.6 cm and an outer diameter of 11.5 cm, consisting of 980 turns of 2.5 mm enameled copper wire
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 1.33 mT minimum calculated - 15 different intensities in the range of 1.33 - 7.32 mT
magnetic flux density 7.32 mT maximum calculated - -

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Larger and abnormal brain ventricles, spina bifida, eye malformation (development of only one eye, too small or undeveloped eye, not developed eye ball), and growth retardation were observed in exposed embryos. Transmission electron microscopy of the telencephalon, eye lens, and retina showed condensed cell nucleus, cell nucleus membrane disappearance, and mitochondria degeneration. The most affected region was the telencephalon, and the retina was altered more than the eye lens.
The most effective magnetic flux density on most regions was 7.32 mT, followed by 2.66 mT. Magnetic flux densities at 4.39, 5.32, and 6.65 mT affected only one investigated region.
The exposure to electromagnetic fields on chick embryos affected the brain and the eye at the morphological and cellular level. The cell nuclei were the most affected part.

Study character:

Study funded by

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