Home
Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Effects of 50 Hz extremely low frequency sinusoidal magnetic fields on the apoptosis of the hearts of preincubated chicken embryos at different levels of developments.

Published in: Int J Radiat Biol 2013; 89 (4): 234-242

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the effects of 50 Hz sinusoidal extremely low frequency magnetic fields on preincubated chicken embryo hearts at histopathological, biochemical, and ultrastructural levels.
Background/further details: 90 fertilized eggs were divided into 6 groups (each group n=15): control group, sham exposure and four exposure groups exposed to different magnetic flux intensities (24 h before incubation). The hearts were removed on day 14 of embryonic development.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 50 Hz
Exposure duration: continuous for 24 h
General information
Fertilized eggs were divided into the following six groups: 1) exposure to 1.33 mT 2) exposure to 2.66 mT 3) exposure to 5.52 mT 4) exposure to 7.32 mT 5) control group 6) sham exposure
Exposure 1
Main characteristics
Frequency 50 Hz
Type
Waveform
Exposure duration continuous for 24 h
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup 42 cm long cylindrical coil with an inner diameter of 9.6 cm, an outer diameter of 11.5 cm and 980 turns of 2.5 mm enameled copper wire; five eggs placed horizontally in east-west direction in the coil; magnetic flux parallel to the long axis of the embryo's body; exposure chamber ventilated
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 1.33 mT - measured - group 1
magnetic flux density 2.66 mT - measured - group 2
magnetic flux density 5.52 mT - measured - group 3
magnetic flux density 7.32 mT - measured - group 4
Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated material:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Histomorphometric investigations of the lengths, widths, thickness of the septae, and left and right ventricles showed normal cells in the hearts of embryos of the control group and sham exposed group in comparison to those of the exposed groups: There was a significant decrease in the lengths of the hearts of exposure group 2 (2.66 mT) and a significant increase in the lengths of the hearts of exposed groups 3 (5.52 mT) and 4 (7.32 mT). Additionally, a significant decrease and increase were observed in the widths of the hearts of exposure group 2 and exposure groups 3 and 4, respectively, The thickness of septae of the hearts of exposed embryos of group 2 showed a significant decrease. There was a significant decrease in the thickness of the wall of the left ventricle in embryos of exposure group 2 and a significant increase in those of exposure groups 1, 3, and 4. The thickness of the wall of the right ventricles was significantly decreased in exposure group 2 while it had increased in the hearts of groups 1, 3, and 4. (All parameters in comparison with sham exposed and control group).
Extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure caused damaged myocytes in exposure group 1, condensed dark nuclei, an increase in the number of apoptotic cells in addition to increased intracellular spaces in exposure group 2, light inflammation and myocyte necrosis in exposure groups 3 and 4, an increase in the number of nuclear membranes' pores, small round unclear cristae mitochondria, and a decrease in the number of mitochondria in the myocytes of exposure group 4 as well as an increase in alkaline phosphatase activities in all exposure groups.
The data provided evidence that extremely low frequency magnetic fields damaged the hearts of chicken embryos at histological, cellular, biochemical level.
Study character:

Study funded by

  • not stated/no funding

Related articles

  • Costa EV et al. (2015): Multifractal dimension and lacunarity of yolk sac vasculature after exposure to magnetic field.
  • Lahijani MS et al. (2013): Effects of the ELF-MFs on the development of spleens of preincubated chicken embryos.
  • Costa EV et al. (2013): Fractal analysis of extra-embryonic vascularization in Japanese quail embryos exposed to extremely low frequency magnetic fields.
  • Pawlak K et al. (2013): Effect of weak electromagnetic field on cardiac work, concentration of thyroid hormones and blood aminotransferase level in the chick embryo.
  • Lahijani MS et al. (2011): Effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields on the histology, apoptosis, and expression of c-Fos and beta-catenin on the livers of preincubated white Leghorn chicken embryos.
  • Lahijani MS et al. (2011): Effects of sinusoidal electromagnetic fields on histopathology and structures of brains of preincubated white Leghorn chicken embryos.
  • Shams Lahijani M et al. (2009): Histopathological and ultrastructural studies on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the liver of preincubated white leghorn chicken embryo.
  • Shams Lahijani M et al. (2007): Light and electron microscope studies of effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields on preincubated chick embryo.
  • Roda-Murillo O et al. (2005): Effects of Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields on Different Parameters of Embryo of Gallus Domesticus.
  • Shams Lahijani M et al. (2004): Development of preincubated chicken eggs following exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields with 1.33-7.32 mT flux densities.
  • Rajendra P et al. (2004): Biological effects of power frequency magnetic fields: Neurochemical and toxicological changes in developing chick embryos.
  • Shams Lahijani M et al. (2000): Teratogenic effects on morphology and skeletal structure of chick embryos after exposure to 50 Hz sinusoidal electromagnetic fields.
  • Shams Lahijani M et al. (2000): Teratogenic effects of sinusoidal extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on morphology of 24 hr chick embryos.
  • Shams Lahijani M et al. (1999): Effects on chick embryos exposed to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields during different developmental stages.
  • Desta AB et al. (1999): Ornithine decarboxylase activity in developing chick embryos after exposure to 60-hertz magnetic fields.
  • Veicsteinas A et al. (1996): Development of chicken embryos exposed to an intermittent horizontal sinusoidal 50 Hz magnetic field.
  • Ubeda A et al. (1994): Chick embryo development can be irreversibly altered by early exposure to weak extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields.
  • Juutilainen J et al. (1987): Relationship between field strength and abnormal development in chick embryos exposed to 50 Hz magnetic fields.