Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Histopathological and ultrastructural studies on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the liver of preincubated white leghorn chicken embryo med./bio.

Published in: Electromagn Biol Med 2009; 28 (4): 391-413

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study whether electromagnetic fields could be an environmental factor invoking histopathological and ultrastructural changes in livers of preincubated chicken embryos exposed to electromagnetic fields.

Background/further details

150 fertilized eggs (55-65 gr) were divided into six groups: exposure groups (1-4, n=30), control group (n=60), and sham exposure group (n=50). Experimental exposure eggs were exposed to four different magnetic flux densities (1.33, 2.66, 5.52, and 7.32 mT). Following exposure or sham exposure the eggs were incubated for 17 days.
Remark of EMF-Portal: It is not stated in the paper, which group the remaining ten chicken embryos belong to (or if there have been 40 in the experimental groups?!)



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 50 Hz
Exposure duration: continuous for 24 hr

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 50 Hz
Exposure duration continuous for 24 hr
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup 42 cm long cylindrical coil with an inner diameter of 9.6 cm, an outer diameter of 11.5 cm and 980 turns of 2.5 mm enameled copper wire
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 1.33 mT - calculated - group 1
magnetic flux density 2.66 mT - calculated - group 2
magnetic flux density 5.52 mT - calculated - group 3
magnetic flux density 7.32 mT - calculated - group 4

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Morphological observations in the exposure groups indicated exencephalic embryos, embryos with asymmetrical faces, crossed beak, shorter upper beak, deformed limbs, gastroschesis, anophthalmia, and microphthalmia.
The microscopy studies of the liver indicated that exposure to electromagnetic fields would produce a lot of various changes in hepatocytes (e.g. severe steatohepatitis, vacuolizations, changed mitochondria, changed nuclei, degenerated hepatocytes, abnormal lipid accumulations).
The authors suggest that an elevated oxygen radical generation and subsequently cell membrane disruptions were the reasons for electromagnetic fields inducing cell damages.

Study character:

Study funded by

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