Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation impairs neurite outgrowth of embryonic neural stem cells. med./bio.

Published in: Sci Rep 2014; 4: 5103

Aim of study (acc. to author)

The effects of an in vitro exposure to a 1800 MHz electromagnetic GSM field on the differentiation of mouse embryonic neural stem cells should be investigated.

Background/further details

All-trans-retinoic acid was used as positive control in the testing of neurite outgrowth because of its promotive effects on neuronal cell differentiation. PD98059 was used as negative control in these tests as it is a specific inhibitor of the ERK1/2 pathway, which regulates neurite outgrowth.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 1,800 MHz
Exposure duration: intermittent for 1 to 3 days (5 min field on, 10 min field off)
Exposure 2: 1,800 MHz
Exposure duration: intermittent for 1 to 3 days (5 min field on, 10 min field off)
Exposure 3: 1,800 MHz
Exposure duration: intermittent for 1 to 3 days (5 min field on, 10 min field off)

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 1,800 MHz
Type
Exposure duration intermittent for 1 to 3 days (5 min field on, 10 min field off)
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber two identical chambers (exposure and sham exposure) mounted inside the same cell culture incubator; temperature was maintained at 37°C ± 0.5°C with max. variance between the chambers of 0.3°C
Setup electromagnetic field was modulated to simulate GSM Talk-signal mode
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 1 W/kg mean - - -

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 1,800 MHz
Type
Exposure duration intermittent for 1 to 3 days (5 min field on, 10 min field off)
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 2 W/kg mean - - -

Exposure 3

Main characteristics
Frequency 1,800 MHz
Type
Exposure duration intermittent for 1 to 3 days (5 min field on, 10 min field off)
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 4 W/kg mean - - -

Reference articles

  • Franzellitti S et al. (2010): Transient DNA damage induced by high-frequency electromagnetic fields (GSM 1.8GHz) in the human trophoblast HTR-8/SVneo cell line evaluated with the alkaline comet assay.
  • Schuderer J et al. (2004): High Peak SAR Exposure Unit With Tight Exposure and Environmental Control for In Vitro Experiments at 1800 MHz

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

No significant differences could be observed for apoptosis, proliferation, cell cycle analysis and the ratio of differentiated astrocytes and neurons between exposure and sham exposure. However, cells exposed to the 4 W/kg field for 3 days showed a significantly decreased neurite outgrowth compared to sham exposure. Simultaneously, RNA and protein expression of the pro-neuronal genes Tuj1, Ngn1 and NeuroD were significantly decreased while Hes1 expression, an inhibitor of pro-neuronal genes, expression was significantly increased.
The authors conclude that an in vitro exposure of mouse embryonic neural stem cells to a 1800 MHz electromagnetic GSM field impairs the neurite outgrowth in differentiated neurons and that further studies should investigate possible consequences.

Study character:

Study funded by

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