The system was allowed to equilibrate for 1 h prior to energizing the waveguides. The temperature within the cell cultures was monitored every 60 s and maintained within 37.0 ± 0.5°C for the sham, negative (incubator) control and RF-exposed samples. The samples exposed at an SAR of 10 W/kg showed cyclical fluctuations of ±0.2°C.
Concurrent negative and positive controls were included in each experiment. The positive (heat-shock) controls were placed on a heating block within an incubator and were maintained at 43°C for 1 h. The negative controls were placed within the same incubator but were not subjected to the heat shock.
The SAR distribution at the plane of the cells was estimated to be ±24% of the meanSAR for each RF-field treatment group, while the maximum to minimum SAR ratio within the sample region was approximately 4:1 [Gajda et al., 2002].
Gajda GB et al.
Cylindrical waveguide applicator for in vitro exposure of cell culture samples to 1.9-GHz radiofrequency fields.
Kayhan H et al.
Does MW Radiation Affect Gene Expression, Apoptotic Level, and Cell Cycle Progression of Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells?
Lu Y et al.
Differential Pro-Inflammatory Responses of Astrocytes and Microglia Involve STAT3 Activation in Response to 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Fields.
Joubert V et al.
Apoptosis is Induced by Radiofrequency Fields through the Caspase-Independent Mitochondrial Pathway in Cortical Neurons.
Valbonesi P et al.
Evaluation of HSP70 expression and DNA damage in cells of a human trophoblast cell line exposed to 1.8 GHz amplitude-modulated radiofrequency fields.
Lee JJ et al.
Acute radio frequency irradiation does not affect cell cycle, cellular migration, and invasion.
Hoyto A et al.
Radiofrequency radiation does not significantly affect ornithine decarboxylase activity, proliferation, or caspase-3 activity of fibroblasts in different physiological conditions.
Chauhan V et al.
Analysis of gene expression in two human-derived cell lines exposed in vitro to a 1.9 GHz pulse-modulated radiofrequency field.
Merola P et al.
Proliferation and apoptosis in a neuroblastoma cell line exposed to 900 MHz modulated radiofrequency field.
Sannino A et al.
Evaluation of Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects in Human Peripheral Blood Leukocytes Following Exposure to 1950-MHz Modulated Signal
Lantow M et al.
Comparative study of cell cycle kinetics and induction of apoptosis or necrosis after exposure of human mono mac 6 cells to radiofrequency radiation.
Caraglia M et al.
Electromagnetic fields at mobile phone frequency induce apoptosis and inactivation of the multi-chaperone complex in human epidermoid cancer cells.
Nikolova T et al.
Electromagnetic fields affect transcript levels of apoptosis-related genes in embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells.
Capri M et al.
In vitro exposure of human lymphocytes to 900 MHz CW and GSM modulated radiofrequency: studies of proliferation, apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential.
Capri M et al.
1800 MHz radiofrequency (mobile phones, different Global System for Mobile communication modulations) does not affect apoptosis and heat shock protein 70 level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from young and old donors.
Hook GJ et al.
Measurement of DNA damage and apoptosis in Molt-4 cells after in vitro exposure to radiofrequency radiation.
Marinelli F et al.
Exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic field induces an unbalance between pro-apoptotic and pro-survival signals in T-lymphoblastoid leukemia CCRF-CEM cells.
Zeni O et al.
Lack of genotoxic effects (micronucleus induction) in human lymphocytes exposed in vitro to 900 MHz electromagnetic fields.
Gatta L et al.
Effects of in vivo exposure to GSM-modulated 900 MHz radiation on mouse peripheral lymphocytes.
Dabrowski MP et al.
Immunotropic effects in cultured human blood mononuclear cells pre-exposed to low-level 1300 MHz pulse-modulated microwave field