Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Evaluating the biological effects of intermittent 1.9 GHz pulse-modulated radiofrequency fields in a series of human-derived cell lines med./bio.

Published in: Radiat Res 2007; 167 (1): 87-93

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the ability of non-thermal radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure to affect a variety of biological processes (including apoptosis, cell cycle progression, cell viability and cytokine production) in a series of human-derived cell lines.

Background/further details

Exponentially growing cells were used and concurrent negative controls (incubator) and positive controls (heat shock for 1 h at 43°C) were included in each experiment.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 1.9 GHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: intermittent, 5 min on/10 min off, for 6 h

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 1.9 GHz
  • guided field
  • circular
Exposure duration intermittent, 5 min on/10 min off, for 6 h
Modulation type pulsed
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber The system was allowed to equilibrate for 1 h prior to energizing the waveguides. The temperature within the cell cultures was monitored every 60 s and maintained within 37.0 ± 0.5°C for the sham, negative (incubator) control and RF-exposed samples. The samples exposed at an SAR of 10 W/kg showed cyclical fluctuations of ±0.2°C.
Setup The 60-mm dishes containing the cell cultures in 10 ml of medium were placed atop a series of circularly polarized cylindrical waveguide applicators.
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional info Concurrent negative and positive controls were included in each experiment. The positive (heat-shock) controls were placed on a heating block within an incubator and were maintained at 43°C for 1 h. The negative controls were placed within the same incubator but were not subjected to the heat shock.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
SAR 1 W/kg mean estimated - see below
SAR 10 W/kg mean estimated - see below

Reference articles

  • Gajda GB et al. (2002): Cylindrical waveguide applicator for in vitro exposure of cell culture samples to 1.9-GHz radiofrequency fields

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • before exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

No detectable changes in cell viability, cell cycle kinetics, incidence of apoptosis, or cytokine expression were found in any of radiofrequency exposed groups in any of the cell lines tested in comparison to the sham exposed controls. However, the positive control samples displayed a significant decrease in cell viability, increase in apoptosis, and alteration in cell cycle kinetics.

Study character:

Study funded by

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