Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Investigation of the effects of distance from sources on apoptosis, oxidative stress and cytosolic calcium accumulation via TRPV1 channels induced by mobile phones and Wi-Fi in breast cancer cells. med./bio.

Published in: Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr 2015; 1848 (10) Pt B: 2756-2765

Aim of study (acc. to author)

The effects of exposure of human breast cancer cells to a 900, 1800 or 2450 MHz electromagnetic field on apoptosis, oxidative stress and the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration should be investigated at different distances to the field source.

Background/further details

The cells were divided into 4 groups: 1) control group, exposure to an electromagnetic field of 2) 900 MHz, 3) 1800 MHz and 4) 2450 MHz. In groups 2-4 cells were exposed at distances of 0 cm, 1 cm, 5 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm and 25 cm to the exposure source, respectively. Each exposure at each distance was repeated 4-6 times.

Endpoint

Exposure

Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
Exposure duration: continuous for 1 hour
Exposure 2: 1,800 MHz
Exposure duration: continuous for 1 hour
-
Exposure 3: 2,450 MHz
Exposure duration: continuous for 1 hour
-

General information

unit of SAR values not clear (mW/kg or W/kg) - contradictory specifications in text and table 1 and exposure setup and specifications for exposure to 1800 MHz and 2450 MHz fields (fields 2 and 3) not clear

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 1 hour
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber cells were kept in a circulatory water bath in falcon tubes (6 tubes at a time)
Setup the exposure system was located in a special room that was fitted with plastic furniture to minimize the possibility of radiation reflection; the walls of the room were covered by chromium-nickel sheets (thickness: 1 mm) to protect the cells against possible external electromagnetic interference; falcon tubes were placed on a plexi glas table; distance was arranged at 0 cm, 1 cm, 5 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm and 25 cm between the falcon tubes and the antenna; temperature in room and flasks was maintained at 37°C and humidity of 83%
Parameters
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power density 12 µW/cm² maximum measured - -
SAR 0.36 mW/kg mean estimated - ± 0.02 mW/kg
SAR 0.58 mW/kg maximum estimated - -
SAR 0.18 mW/kg minimum estimated - -

Exposure 2

Main characteristics
Frequency 1,800 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 1 hour
Exposure setup
Exposure source
  • not specified
Setup distance was arranged at 0 cm, 1 cm, 5 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm and 25 cm between cells and the antenna
Parameters

No parameters are specified for this exposure.

Exposure 3

Main characteristics
Frequency 2,450 MHz
Type
Exposure duration continuous for 1 hour
Exposure setup
Exposure source
  • not specified
Setup distance was arranged at 0 cm, 1 cm, 5 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm and 25 cm between cells and the antenna
Parameters

No parameters are specified for this exposure.

Reference articles

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated material:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

In all exposure groups (2-4), the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration was significantly increased in samples with a distance of 0-5 cm to the field source compared to the control group.
Cell viability was significantly reduced in group 2 (900 MHz) and 4 (2450 MHz) at distances of 0-5 cm and in group 3 (1800 MHz) at distances of 0-25 cm compared to the control group.
The generation of reactive oxygen species was significantly increased in all exposure groups in samples with a distance of 0-5 cm to the field source in comparison to the control group.
Apoptosis was significantly increased in groups 2 and 3 at distances of 0-10 cm and in group 4 at 0-5 cm compared to the control group.
The enzyme activities of caspase-3 and -9 were significantly increased in all exposure groups in samples with a distance of 0-5 cm to the field source when compared to the control group.
The authors conclude that exposure of human breast cancer cells to 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz electromagnetic fields might increase apoptosis, oxidative stress and the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration at distances of up to 10 cm to the source of the field. Thus, a safety distance of 10 cm to such exposure sources could mean an effective protection against these effects and an administration of TRPV1 ion channel blockers might be a sensible therapeutic approach for their treatment.

Study character:

Study funded by

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