Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Histological and histochemical study of the protective role of rosemary extract against harmful effect of cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the parotid glands med./bio.

Published in: Acta Histochem 2016; 118 (5): 478-485

Aim of study (acc. to author)

The effects of exposure of rats to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field (GSM) on the histology and oxidative stress of the parotid glands and the protective role of rosemary extract should be investigated.

Background/further details

Rosemary has antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. However, its protective role against EMF induced oxidative stress has not been investigated to date.
40 rats were divided into 4 groups (n=10 each): 1) exposure to the electromagnetic field, 2) treatment with rosemary extract, 3) co-exposure to the electromagnetic field and rosemary extract, 4) control group.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 900 MHz
Exposure duration: 4 hours/day for 30 days

General information

220 mg/kg body weight rosemary extract was administered orally daily during the exposure period

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 900 MHz
Exposure duration 4 hours/day for 30 days
Additional info GSM
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Chamber cage
Setup the mobile phone was placed over the cage of the animals, which was surrounded by aluminum foil to focus waves and shield the animals from external fields
Additional info non-EMF-exposed groups were held separately in a different room
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 2 W peak value - - -
power density 0.02 mW/cm² mean - - -
SAR 0.9 W/kg - - - -

Reference articles

  • Al-Damegh MA (2012): Rat testicular impairment induced by electromagnetic radiation from a conventional cellular telephone and the protective effects of the antioxidants vitamins C and E

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

Histological and ultrastructural examinations revealed changes in the EMF exposure group (group 1) compared to the control group (group 4) and rosemary extract group (group 2). In histology, cytoplasmic vacuoles, irregular outlines and darkly stained nuclei were observed in acini. Moreover, mucous release was increased and thick connective tissue septa with congested blood vessels were found.
The electron microscopy confirmed this indication with heterochromatic nuclei and damaged organelles as well as collagen fibers in the basement membrane being found.
In the co-exposure group (group 3), most histological and ultrastructural changes were reverted and exhibited the state of the control group.
The diameter and number of serous acini as well as the parenchyma/stroma ratio were significantly decreased in the EMF exposure group compared to the control group and co-exposure group.
In oxidative stress tests, lipid peroxidation was significantly increased while the total antioxidant capacity was significantly decreased in the exposure group compared to the control group and co-exposure group.
The authors conclude that an exposure of rats to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field (GSM) might alter the histology of the parotid glands possibly due to oxidative stress and that rosemary might play a protective role against this effect through its antioxidant activity.

Study character:

Study funded by

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