研究のタイプ: 医学/生物学の研究 (experimental study)

[興奮性および非興奮性細胞の細胞内カルシウム濃度に対する高周波電磁界の影響力] med./bio.

[The Influence of High-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on the Intracellular Calcium Concentration of Excitable and Non-Excitable Cells].

掲載誌: Edition Wissenschaft 1995; 2: 3-36
Journal not peer-reviewed

この論文は、社団法人die Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk (1992年から活動している研究資金提供団体)へのドイツ語の研究報告書である。研究課題は、興奮性細胞と非興奮性細胞の細胞内カルシウム濃度に対する高周波電磁界の影響を調べることである。実験では、携帯電話のモバイル通信に採用されているさまざまな搬送周波数とパルス化パターンがテストされた。興奮性細胞にはモルモットの単離心筋細胞、非興奮性細胞には細胞株Jurkatの培養Tリンパ球を用いた。電磁界へのばく露中に細胞の顕微鏡観察を可能にするTEM-セルを開発した。セル内は灌流により温度制御された。細胞内カルシウム濃度は、蛍光指示薬fura-2によって測定され、CCDカメラと適切なソフトウェアを備えた画像分析システムによって記録された。その結果、搬送周波数とパルス化パターンに関係なく、細胞の細胞内カルシウム濃度に対する弱い(非熱的高周波電磁界の影響の兆候は見られなかった、と報告している。

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研究目的(著者による)

To study the influence of high-frequency electromagnetic fields on the intracellular calcium concentration of excitable (isolated heart muscle cells of the guinea pig) and non-excitable cells (T lymphocytes of the Jurkat cell line).
An experiment was divided into three parts: During the first phase the cells were monitored without any field present, during the second phase the cells were usually exposed to the field, and during the third phase a chemical stimulation was carried out, in order to raise the calcium concentration in the cytoplasm of the cells.

影響評価項目

ばく露

ばく露 パラメータ
ばく露1: 900 MHz
Modulation type: CW
ばく露時間: continuous for 500 s
  • 電力: 5 W mean (also peak value)
  • SAR: 59.4 mW/kg mean (also peak value)
ばく露2: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 500 s
  • 電力: 5 W peak
  • SAR: 28.6 mW/kg mean
  • SAR: 57.2 mW/kg peak
ばく露3: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 500 s
  • 電力: 5 W peak
  • SAR: 29.7 mW/kg mean
  • SAR: 59.4 mW/kg peak
ばく露4: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 500 s
  • 電力: 5 W peak
  • SAR: 15.4 mW/kg mean
  • SAR: 123.2 mW/kg peak
ばく露5: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 500 s
  • 電力: 5 W peak
  • SAR: 37.4 mW/kg mean
  • SAR: 46.7 mW/kg peak
ばく露6: 1,300 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 500 s
ばく露7: 1,800 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 500 s
ばく露8: 900 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 120 min
  • 電力: 5 W peak
  • SAR: 15.4 mW/kg mean
  • SAR: 123.2 mW/kg peak
ばく露9: 1,100 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 500 s
ばく露10: 1,300 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 500 s
ばく露11: 1,500 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 500 s
ばく露12: 1,700 MHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 500 s
ばく露13: 1,900 GHz
Modulation type: pulsed
ばく露時間: continuous for 500 s

General information

Heart muscle cells and T-Jurkat cells were subjected to an extensive measurement programme with various carrier frequencies (between 900 and 1900 MHz) and pulsation patterns (0, 16, 50, 217 Hz, and 30 kHz). With the heart muscle cells, additional experiments were performed, i.e., long term exposures (120 min) and exposures of depolarized cells (depolarization from -80 mV to -50, -30, and 0 mV).

ばく露1

主たる特性
周波数 900 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 continuous for 500 s
Modulation
Modulation type CW
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
チャンバの詳細 The TEM cell was designed to fit on top of the inverted microscope and consisted of two separate parts, i.e. the upper part with the septum (the TEM cell itself), and the rectangular bottom plate containing the 1-cm test chamber for holding the biological material. The bottom of this chamber consisted of a glass coverslip and a 1-mm metal mesh made of 0.05-mm wire and provided shielding while allowing optical observation. A detailed description can be found in the partial report on "Expositionseinrichtungen" [Neibig, 1996].
ばく露装置の詳細 The sample volume (200 µl perfusion fluid with cells) in a Plexiglas container was maintained at a constant temperature by an exchange of the fluid preheated to 37 °C and an additional heating fluid running through a circular channel around the sample volume.
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional information An experimental run consisted of three phases each lasting 500 s. The first phase without any exposure was followed by field or sham exposure. During the third phase a chemical stimulation was performed in order to provoke a response of the cells which served as positive control.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力 5 W mean 測定値 - also peak value
SAR 59.4 mW/kg mean 測定値および計算値 - also peak value

ばく露2

主たる特性
周波数 900 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 continuous for 500 s
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Duty cycle 50 %
Repetition frequency 16 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力 5 W peak 測定値 - -
SAR 28.6 mW/kg mean 測定値および計算値 - -
SAR 57.2 mW/kg peak 測定値および計算値 - -

ばく露3

主たる特性
周波数 900 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 continuous for 500 s
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Duty cycle 50 %
Repetition frequency 50 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力 5 W peak 測定値 - -
SAR 29.7 mW/kg mean 測定値および計算値 - -
SAR 59.4 mW/kg peak 測定値および計算値 - -

ばく露4

主たる特性
周波数 900 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 continuous for 500 s
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Duty cycle 14 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional information In one set of experiments, the membrane potential of the heart muscle cells was adjusted to different values (-80 mV, -50, -30, and 0 mV). In the third phase, the membrane potential of the depolarized cells was repolarized to -80 mV.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力 5 W peak 測定値 - -
SAR 15.4 mW/kg mean 測定値および計算値 - -
SAR 123.2 mW/kg peak 測定値および計算値 - -

ばく露5

主たる特性
周波数 900 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 continuous for 500 s
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Duty cycle 80 %
Repetition frequency 30,000 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力 5 W peak 測定値 - -
SAR 37.4 mW/kg mean 測定値および計算値 - -
SAR 46.7 mW/kg peak 測定値および計算値 - -

ばく露6

主たる特性
周波数 1,300 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 continuous for 500 s
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Duty cycle 14 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力 2 W peak 測定値 - -

ばく露7

主たる特性
周波数 1,800 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 continuous for 500 s
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Duty cycle 14 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力 2 W peak 測定値 - -
SAR 8.6 mW/kg mean 測定値および計算値 - -
SAR 68.8 mW/kg peak 測定値および計算値 - -

ばく露8

主たる特性
周波数 900 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 continuous for 120 min
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Duty cycle 14 %
Repetition frequency 217 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Additional information In a third set of experiments with heart muscle cells, long-term exposures were tested. The first phase (without field) lasted 5 min and was followed by 120 min of exposure and 25 min of chemical stimulation (positive control).
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力 5 W peak 測定値 - -
SAR 15.4 mW/kg mean 測定値および計算値 - -
SAR 123.2 mW/kg peak 測定値および計算値 - -

ばく露9

主たる特性
周波数 1,100 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 continuous for 500 s
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Duty cycle 80 %
Repetition frequency 30,000 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力 2 W peak 測定値 - -

ばく露10

主たる特性
周波数 1,300 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 continuous for 500 s
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Duty cycle 80 %
Repetition frequency 30,000 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力 2 W peak 測定値 - -

ばく露11

主たる特性
周波数 1,500 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 continuous for 500 s
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Duty cycle 80 %
Repetition frequency 30,000 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力 2 W peak 測定値 - -

ばく露12

主たる特性
周波数 1,700 MHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 continuous for 500 s
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Duty cycle 80 %
Repetition frequency 30,000 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力 2 W peak 測定値 - -

ばく露13

主たる特性
周波数 1,900 GHz
タイプ
  • electromagnetic field
特性
  • guided field
ばく露時間 continuous for 500 s
Modulation
Modulation type pulsed
Duty cycle 80 %
Repetition frequency 30,000 Hz
Pulse type rectangular
ばく露装置
ばく露の発生源/構造
  • E1と同じ装置
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
パラメータ
測定量 種別 Method Mass 備考
電力 2 W peak 測定値 - -

Reference articles

ばく露を受けた生物:

方法 影響評価項目/測定パラメータ/方法

研究対象とした生物試料:
調査の時期:
  • ばく露前
  • ばく露中
  • ばく露後

研究の主なアウトカム(著者による)

The data did not give any sign for an influence of weak (athermal) high-frequency electromagnetic fields on the intracellular calcium concentration of cells independently of the carrier frequency and the pulsation pattern.
Experiments with heart cells: The chemical stimulation lead always to an increase in the cytoplasmic calcium concentration indicating that the calcium transport mechansims were working properly. In contrast, the electromagnetic field exposure did not influence the calcium concentration in any case. There was no difference between the sham-exposed and the exposed cells.
Jurkat-cells: The cytoplasmic calcium concentration could not be influenced by the high-frequency field. However, in these cells the cytoplasmic calcium concentration did neither change during chemical stimulation.

研究の種別:

研究助成

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