Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

Effects of sinusoidal electromagnetic fields on histopathology and structures of brains of preincubated white Leghorn chicken embryos med./bio.

Published in: Electromagn Biol Med 2011; 30 (3): 146-157

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the effects of sinusoidal magnetic fields on histopathology and structures of brains of chicken embryos.

Background/further details

300 fertilized eggs were divided into three groups of exposure (n=50, each), a control group (n=75), and a sham exposure group (n=75). Exposed eggs were irradiated at three different intensities. 14-day old chicken embryos were removed from the shells (following incubation) and the brains were investigated.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 50 Hz
Exposure duration: continuous for 24 h before incubation

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 50 Hz
Exposure duration continuous for 24 h before incubation
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Setup 42 cm long cylindrical coil with an inner diameter of 9.6 cm, an outer diameter of 11.5 cm and 980 turns of 2.5 mm diameter enameled copper wire; magnetic flux parallel to the long axis of the eggs; coil chamber ventilated
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
magnetic flux density 1.33 mT - - - -
magnetic flux density 2.66 mT - - - -
magnetic flux density 7.32 mT - - - -

Reference articles

  • Shams Lahijani M et al. (2009): Histopathological and ultrastructural studies on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the liver of preincubated white leghorn chicken embryo
  • Shams Lahijani M et al. (2007): Light and electron microscope studies of effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic fields on preincubated chick embryo

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The results showed that magnetic fields have toxic effects on brain cells in chicken embryos by increasing the number of apoptotic cells and degeneration of brains' tissues of exposed chicken embryos: Exposed embryos showed early deaths and severe hemorrhages. Gastroschesis was quite common in all exposed groups. Hematoxylin-eosin stain revealed severe changes in the brains of exposed embryos with e.g. abnormal distributions of neurons and neuroglia, an increase in the number of inflammatory cells, ruptured blood vessels, and damaged red blood cells in the brains. Scanning electron microscopy showed the existence of inflammatory cells infiltrating into the brains' tissues.
These findings suggest that the magnetic fields induced brain damages at different levels.

Study character:

Study funded by

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