Study type: Medical/biological study (experimental study)

2.45 GHz (CW) microwave irradiation alters circadian organization, spatial memory, DNA structure in the brain cells and blood cell counts of male mice, Mus musculus. med./bio.

Published in: Progr Electromagn Res B 2011; 29: 23-42

Aim of study (acc. to author)

To study the effects of 2.45 GHz microwave exposure on various parameters in mice, such as circadian system (locomotor activity pattern), brain function (DNA damage, spatial memory), liver function, haematological and spermatogenic parameters (sperm count, sperm motility).

Background/further details

10 mice were divided into a control group and an exposure group of five mice each.



Exposure Parameters
Exposure 1: 2.45 GHz
Modulation type: CW
Exposure duration: continuous for 2 h/day on 30 days

Exposure 1

Main characteristics
Frequency 2.45 GHz
Exposure duration continuous for 2 h/day on 30 days
Modulation type CW
Exposure setup
Exposure source
Distance between exposed object and exposure source 25 cm
Setup five mice placed in a 25 cm x 16 cm x 6.5 cm cage with individual partitions for each mouse; cage made of polyethylene material and placed on an impregnated styrofoam microwave absorber under the horn antenna with an aperture of 9 cm x 5 cm; during exposure mice restraint in the cage compartments parallel to the E-field
Sham exposure A sham exposure was conducted.
Measurand Value Type Method Mass Remarks
power 54 mW - estimated - transmitted from the antenna
power 49.54 mW - calculated - in the animal cage
power density 0.02564 mW/cm² - calculated - -
SAR 0.03561 W/kg spatial average calculated whole body -

Exposed system:

Methods Endpoint/measurement parameters/methodology

Investigated system:
Investigated organ system:
Time of investigation:
  • before exposure
  • during exposure
  • after exposure

Main outcome of study (acc. to author)

The data showed that most of the locomotor activity of the exposed animals occurred within the light fraction of the light:dark cycle (12:12). In contrast, in pre-exposure groups and to some extent in short-term exposed groups (i.e. during the first week of exposure) as well as in sham exposed mice, most of the activity was restricted to the dark phase.
Microwave exposure caused an increase in erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, a significant DNA single-strand break in the brain cells and the loss of spatial memory (less time spent in the target quadrant). The sperm counts and the sperm motility was not altered in the exposed mice compared with the controls. There was no significant differences in the levels of the two transaminases in the exposed mice compared with the controls.
The authors conclude that continuous exposure to low intensity microwave irradiation may have an adverse effect on the brain function by altering circadian system and the rate of DNA damage.

Study character:

Study funded by

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